Moroccan Jews immigration to Israel please help?
1. What was life like for Jews in Morocco in the 20th century?
2. What life like for the Moroccan Jewish immigrants to Israel?
3. Why did they immigrate to Israel?
4. During what years did Moroccan Jewish immigration to Israel take place?
5. What did the Jewish Moroccans do for a living after they immigrated to Israel?
6. What happened to the Jewish Moroccans after immigration? like did the Israelis tolerate them)'
7. How did the Moroccan Jews adjust to life in Israel?
- 8 years agoFavorite Answer
Moroccan Jews, like most Jews in the Arab world, suffered antisemitism and violence similar to what European Jews went through. Though many Muslims respected them, and they played an important role in the country's economic life, they were often treated with contempt, and Hitler was widely admired. The Jews were forced to live in ghettos and pay a jizya, or tax payed by non-Muslims. They lived as dhimmis, or second-class citizens. There were sometimes bloody pogroms carried out against Jews, which involved murder, rape, mutilation, and ransacking of the Jewish Quarters. During World War II, they suffered additional discrimination under the Vichy French government.
There were quite a few pogroms in the 1940s, especially during the Israeli War of Independence.
In 1948, before mass emigration began, there were 265,000 Jews living in Moroco.
Such persecution and pogroms, while not as bad as the Jews had it in Europe for centuries, even before the Holocaust, were what Jews throughout the entire Arab world had to endure for close to 1,000 years.
In 1956, when Morocco was independent, there were some Jews in key positions, but emigration to Israel was already ongoing. It was temporarily banned, but Jews were again allowed to leave in 1963.
Moroccan Jews left for Israel for a variety of reasons. Many were sick of the persecution and motivated by security concerns. Others were hardcore Zionists who immigrated for religious and ideological reasons.
The wave of Moroccan Jews immigrating to Israel began with the establishment of Israel in 1948 and it's subsequent war of independence. In 1948 and 1949, some 18,000 Jews left for Israel. The emigration wave slowed after this, but picked up again in 1954 and 1955. Something close to 40,000 Jews left Morocco in the 50s.
In 1956, when Morocco became independent, as stated above, emigration to Israel was banned. This ban was relaxed in 1963, 80,000 Jews left the country in short order, and emigration continued steadily. By 1967, there were only 60,000 Jews still living in Morocco. After the Six-Day War, and the resulting increase in Arab-Jewish tensions, most of the remaining Jews left. Some went to Israel, but most went to North America and Europe.
In Israel, Moroccan immigrants who arrived after independence and in the 50s were placed in Maabarot, or tent camps, along with Jewish refugees from all over the world. They were initially living in tents, and lived under rationing, under horrid living conditions. They were soon given permanent homes in new towns specially built for Jewish refugees, called development towns, throughout the country - in some cases the tent camps themselves were transformed into towns. These towns were concentrated in Israel's peripheral areas.
Moroccan Jews, along with other Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews, were initially at a lower social status than Ashkenazi Jews. They were poorer, held lower-paying and often menial jobs, and were less educated. They were a world apart from the often wealthier Ashkenazim. In addition, Israel in its early days was governed by its founding fathers, who were Ashkenazim. They saw the Moroccans, along with other Oriental Jews, as Arabized Jews, and did their best to replace their Middle Eastern traditions with European Jewish traditions and culture in an attempt to "make them Jewish". However, over time, the gap between the different Jewish groups was closed. The Sephardim and Mizrahim voted en masse for Menachem Begin in 1977, and as Prime Minister, he did a lot to improve their status.
Today, Jews of Moroccan descent, along with all other Jewish groups, are pretty much equal in Israel. They have the same jobs and education levels as others, and because they live in Israel, they enjoy a first-world standard of living. Many occupy key political and security positions in government. A number of Israeli politicians were actually born in Morocco. They are pretty much typical Israelis, and are no different from other Jews in Israel today. According to a 2008 survey, Israeli Jews of Moroccan origin are the happiest and most satisfied with life among all Israelis.
- Anonymous8 years ago
I know a Morocan guy who fled with his family to the South of France. This was sometime not long after world war 2. For some reason he got split up from his Mother and Sisters and ended up in a camp for orphaned Jewish children. Someone from the Jewish Agency arrived at the camp and announced, that any children wanting to go to Israel should come with them. He decided to go with them.
He is now in his eighties and has a beautiful home outside Jerusalem. He had a successful construction company and still owns a couple of restaurants. He was also reunited with his Mother and Sisters as it happens. They got to Israel about a year later.
- n00bzLv 58 years ago
@ Rabbi - once again, Israel's population has over 50% Sepharadic Jews.
the "European Hasidic" described at the beginning of the article, is not you average Israeli, but part of a minority within a minority.
@asker, I would use Vlad's answer and Short&Sweet sources.
bear in mind Israel is an immigration country, which means every wave of immigrants brought its own unique style/culture/habits/tradition, some took longer to adjust.
However, they all spoke the same language, celebrated the same holidays, and prayed to the same god
(once again the Khazar theory fumbles)
- 8 years ago
I can not answer all the questions but I had a friend of Moroccan descent who was born in Israel whose parents migrated to Israel after the Zionists destroyed the relationship between Arab Jews and the Arab states they lived in.
She moved to the US to get away from the racism in Israel.
The Khazar Jews can be very racist.
Here is the proof from a major mainstream newspaper.
"Israel’s humiliating discrimination against Arab Jews"
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- Anonymous8 years ago
Fakerabbi who answered is a troll who makes up stuff to create hate at Jews. (Not just at Israel, but often quoting classic antisemitic stuff.)
This site has tons of good details:
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/talkin... (Morocco is down the page)
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/myths3... (different details)