The 'Nanking Massacre' in which the Prosecution claims the 'massacre of 300,000', has never been so proved. However, any other unjustifiable killings by Japanese troops are regarded as punishable war crimes during the battles against the Chinese Army, and these should be processed under the international humanitarian law.
Before the battle of Nanking, the commander General Iwane Matsui ordered the Japanese army to be very careful not to kill any civilians. During the battle, every civilian took refuge in the Nanking Safety Zone. Japanese army did not attack it, and there were no civilian victims, except for several who were accidentally killed or injured by stray shells. According to the Documents of the Nanking Safety Zone, the committee members in China reported to the world about the number of victims in Nanking battle was 49 people in 1938.
John Rabe, later handed a letter of thanks for this to the commander of the Japanese army.
December 14, 1937 Dear commander of the Japanese army in Nanking, We appreciate that the artillerymen of your army did not attack the Safety Zone. We hope to contact you to make a plan to protect the general Chinese citizens who are staying in the Safety Zone….We will be pleased to cooperate with you in any way to protect the general citizens in this city.
--Chairman of the Nanking International Committee, John H. D. Rabe--"
If the Japanese military wanted to massacre every Nanking citizen, it would have been very easily done if they only bombarded the Nanking Safety Zone. The Japanese military did not attack it, but rather protected all the people of the Zone. In the mind of General Matsui, the purpose of the war was not to take the land, but to save Chinese civilians from the Chinese civil war, killing among the Chinese themselves.
James Espy, the vice American Council at Nanking, reported to the American Embassy at Hankow concerning the aspect of the city right before the fall of Nanking as follows :
Monition should be made here, however, that the Chinese themselves are not altogether exonerated of depredations, at least to some extent, before the entry of the Japanese. During the last few days some violations of people and property were undoubtedly committed by them. Chinese soldiers in their mad rush to discard their military uniforms and put on civilian clothes, in a number of incidents, killed civilians to obtain their clothing.
After the Japanese occupation, did the population of Nanking decrease by more than 200,000?
Let’s look at many historical records. On Dec 8,1937， Tang Sheng-zhi, who was Chinese commander, warned that all the noncombatants should assemble in the Safety Zone, and the citizens rushed into the Safety Zone for the safety.
As the result, there were no people within the castle except in the Safety Zone. John Rabe, the Safety Zone Committee (TSZC) member, wrote in his diary in Dec 10, when the Nanking battle began, the Nanking population was 200,000. TSZC described in the Document No.9 dated in Dec 17, "On the 13th when the Japanese entered the city, we had nearly all the civilian population in the Safety Zone, so the number 200,000 is no doubt.
For TSZC, it was absolutely necessary to know the accurate number of people in order to distribute food to those refugees. After the Japanese victory and occupation took place, TSZC in its document dated on December 17, and in subsequent documents, consistently recognized this number. Afterwards how did the population of Nanking change? TSZC documents read that in January 1938 the population was 250,000.
Lewis S. C. Smythe, professor of Nanking University investigated the population with the help of many Chinese staffs on February 1938. He wrote a report which shows the population of Nanking was 250,000 or 270,000 as of the end of March 1938. The Nanking City Administrative Office of the Nanking Restoration Government, which was established on March 28, 1938, registered 277,000 inhabitants. Japanese soldiers killed 300,000 Chinese people in Nanking city?
Why many Chinese people came back to Nanking after Japanese occupied the city?
Why Mao didn't announce about the massacre in the international mass media conferences from 1937 to 1938?
Why Chinese government could not prove the murder of 340,000 when The International Military Tribunal for the Far East was opened?
The British newspaper North China Daily News, which was published in China in English on December 24, 1937, eleven days after the Japanese occupation of Nanking, carried a photo taken in Nanking by their photographer. The photo was entitled "Japanese distribute gifts in Nanking." In the photo are Japanese soldiers distributing gifts, and Chinese adults and children receiving the gifts and rejoicing. Is this the scene of a massacre?
How can Japanese admit the wrong history such as the Nanking Massacre?
Hey, Please tell me.
Recent scientific research has revealed that there are no photographs attesting to a massacre in Nanking. At least 143 pictures are distorted, are fabricated, or are used for the Nanking Massacre pictures which were from different areas and different times by Chinese government.
Analyzing the “Photographic Evidence” of the Nanking Massacre
Some photographs in the second sino-Japanese war with primary source material
Analyzing the “evidence of moving pictures ” of the Nanking Massacre
Rescue operation of Japanese soldiers
Truth of World War II - What Japan fought for