小鯨 asked in 社會與文化語言 · 7 years ago

有關不定詞使用時機的問題

我有幾個問題有些疑惑如下面

It's hot outside, so I bought some ice water to drink.

位甚麼助提不能選"to drink it"呢?

Here some pencils for you to write with.

位甚麼不能用"to write"呢?

可以告訴我這兩句有何不同?

為何一個要加介係詞一個不用?

John is _____ to have been an excellent listener.

位麼答案是"said"而不是"called"?

詳解是寫說可變成 It is said that John was an excellent listener.

為何這兩句可以通呢?

還有可以告訴我如何將名詞子句簡化成名詞片語嘛?

還有不定詞的使用時機

抱歉問的好像有點多 不過看參考書也有看沒有懂

希望有好心大大能幫我解答 謝謝!!

2 Answers

Rating
  • Louis
    Lv 7
    7 years ago
    Favorite Answer

    1. It's hot outside, so I bought some ice water to drink.

    位甚麼助提不能選"to drink it"呢?

    因 為用不定詞to drink當名詞water的修飾語時,其修飾的名詞water,就是to drink在邏輯上的受詞,所以不能再給這不定詞一個受詞it了。

    Here are some pencils for you to write with.

    位甚麼不能用"to write"呢?

    道理同上,You will write with these pencils.當不定詞片語to write with用來當名詞pencils的修飾語時,不必再給一個受詞。因為其先行詞就是不定詞在邏輯上的受詞。

    可以告訴我這兩句有何不同?

    為何一個要加介係詞一個不用?

    因為to drink是及物動詞衍生的不定詞,而write是不及物動詞。不及物動詞需要介系詞幫助才能再加上受詞。

    2. John is _____ to have been an excellent listener.

    位麼答案是"said"而不是"called"?

    因為句意是[據說],是別人論及他時所說的話,所以用[說]這個動詞say,而不用[稱呼]或[呼叫]的call。意思是:據說約翰曾是個很好的聽眾(他願意聽別人的意見)。

    詳解是寫說可變成 It is said that John was an excellent listener.

    為何這兩句可以通呢?

    兩句的意思不同。這句是據說約翰以前是個好聽眾(因為用了過去的was,表示現在己經不是這樣了。

    2. 還有可以告訴我如何將名詞子句簡化成名詞片語嘛?

    Sue was thinking about how much she ought to spend on a new coat.

    = Sue was thinking about how much to spend on a new coat. 這個不定詞片語是名詞 性質的。

    I am going to ask my doctor what I can take for my cold.

    = I am going to ask my doctor what to take for my cold.

    I would appreciate if you are on time.

    = I would appreciate your being on time.(動名詞片語)

    Betty regretted that she did not see that movie.

    = Betty regretted not seeing that movie.

    He considers that you are a honest person.

    = He considers you (to be) a honest person.需要改變主句的結構,才能將原名詞子句化為名詞片語。

    因為簡化的過程還要考慮維持原句意,且受到單字的用法,所以不是所有的名詞子句都適合作此改變(如名詞子句的主詞不同於主要子句時,改成不定詞就有問題)。

    還有不定詞的使用時機

    不定詞可以具有名詞,形容詞,副詞的性質,所以可以當句子裡的主詞,受詞,修飾語,補語,或同位語。

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  • 7 years ago

    你問題前兩部分肯定有人會幫你。 不過後面的部份,問題範圍太大,尤其不定詞使用時機,文法書都要用整個不定詞一章來解釋,還無法完全涵蓋,恐怕你不會得到比文法書更完整的回答。

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