As a Catholic..
It is a complex issue with many facets to it.
#2 is definitely not true. Simply look at rates of pedophilia in the general public which CAN marry and you'll see that celibacy is not the issue. IF celibacy was a major contributing cause.. then we could look towards Protestant denominations and see a significant fewer cases.. but the evidence doesn't bare this out. So the argument fails on 2 attempts.
However, as a Catholic who has researched this.. I'd add 3 other causes which contributed.
A) The Catholic church, believing in reconciliation and grace (aka forgiveness) believed that a contrite confession would be sufficient for a Priest, who is supposed to be filled with grace and called by God to this vocation, to remain celibate and avoid temptation. So in a way, the Catholic faith was a victim of its own belief system. A belief that if one is sincerely sorry.. that one can overcome their temptation.
So related to this was an improper understanding of pedophilia (see next point)
B) Clinical Psychology up until the 90s had a flawed understanding of pedophilia. Throughout the 60s to 80s - it was believed that if you publicly exposed the pedophile, removed him from temptation and sought a few months of counselling.. the person would not re-offend. They treated pedophilia like a physical relationship with another person. And so many counselors advised the Church to MOVE the Priest away. The idea was that away from the person they are attracted to, they wouldn't re-offend. Especially if they knew they were being 'monitored'
And so in some cases the Church followed the advise of professionals and we see this in letters advising the next Pastor to 'watch him closely' - and nothing more.
We now know this doesn't work. But it took decades and perhaps it took the Catholic church a bit longer then the rest of society to understand that simply removing the temptation doesn't "fix" pedophiles.
Most of the allegations came out in the late 90s and early 2000s - At a time when society understood pedophiles and sexual predators better. Unfortunately, many people applied current understanding to problems spanning 50 years.. and attacked the church for moving priests around or not doing enough.
C) The media did a really BAD job of reporting the facts. Any competent thesis paper on the topic of sexual abuse should also look at how things were mishandled by the press.
In some cases the media demanded that the Catholic church strip Priests of their vocation when the Priest was in fact either A) retired or B) dead in some cases.
- The media applied modern understandings of sexual deviancy to cases going back to the 1950s
- In some cases the media reported cases spanning over 3 decades as if they just happened.
- In some cases multiple offenses by one Priest was made to sound like hundreds of cases or priests.
- Even the terminology was wrong. Technically, since many of the cases involved teenager boys the correct term is not pedophilia but hebephilia. The media missed out on a great opportunity to educate the public, instead sensationalizing things and making ALL cases exactly the same.
- The media never investigated WHAT or HOW the church tried to make amends or reform. Mentioning only the dirty details, but none of the reforms. - I'm not talking about restitution money, but actual reforms and procedures to ensure this didn't happen again.
- The media never looked very deeply into why LOCAL authorities did little to nothing. There were multiple cases where the church DID refer things to the local police and they swept things under the carpet or did nothing. The media rarely mentioned this or anytime the Catholic church cooperated.
- What about the parents? The media also never looked at culturally, how our socieites treatment of sexual abuse has changed and how this played into how the church handled things. Prior to the late 90s..sexual abuse was often simply not reported by the parents or the community as a whole, even when things were known.
I could go on and on.. but I think a fair assessment of the crisis has to look at both sides and how things were mishandled by the press as well.
I'm in no way defending the Catholic church.. but I have done my own research and find this issue VERY complex with multiple facets and failings across the board.