i need help to discuss how drugs administered are absorbed via the following routes?

how drugs administered via the following routes are absorbed: Topical; Inhalation; Rectal; and Intravenous.

just need to know how it work.

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  • 8 years ago
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    Topical: drugs molecules penetrate the skin along the hair follicles or sweat ducts and then be absorbed through the follicular epithelium and sebaceous glands (1)

    Inhalation:Drugs administered by inhalation through the mouth must be atomized into smaller particles than those administered by the nasal route, so that the drug can pass through the windpipe (trachea) and into the lungs. How deeply into the lungs they go depends on the size of the droplets. Smaller droplets go deeper, which increases the amount of drug absorbed. Inside the lungs, they are absorbed into the bloodstream. (2)

    Rectal:In this form, a drug is mixed with a waxy substance that dissolves or liquefies after it is inserted into the rectum. Because the rectum's wall is thin and its blood supply rich, the drug is readily absorbed. A suppository is prescribed for people who cannot take a drug orally(2)

    Intraveneous: a needle is inserted directly into a vein. A solution containing the drug may be given in a single dose or by continuous infusion. Intravenous administration is the best way to deliver a precise dose quickly and in a well-controlled manner throughout the body. It is also used for irritating solutions, which would cause pain and damage tissues if given by subcutaneous or intramuscular injection.(2)

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