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who proposed the structure of insulin?
- gangadharan nairLv 79 years agoFavorite Answer
The primary structure of insulin was determined by British molecular biologist Frederick Sanger. It was the first protein to have its sequence be determined. He was awarded the 1958 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for this work.Source(s): http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/l... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin#Nobel_Prizes
- 9 years ago
A few Canadian scientists by the names of Frederick Banting, Charles Best, professor Macleod, Dr James Collip. They isolated the insulin hormone that's found in the pancreas. They did this at a Toronto University i believe around the 1920's. Banting was the co-inventor of insulin and was knighted because of his work.
- Gary BLv 79 years ago
Insulin is NOT a medicine. It is a naturally occurring HORMONE that is is present in EVERY human. Insulin is necessary to allow sugar to pass from your blood into your cells, where the cells use it as fuel to work, grow, and heal.
When your body doesn't make enough insulin, you are DIABETIC. Since the sugar can;t get into your cells, your body literally starves to death, while sugar crystal build up in your blood causing all kinds of damage to your brain, your nerves, your kidney, your heart, your eyes, and even your sex organs.
Insulin was not PROPOSED, but it was DISCOVERED. Insulin is not MADE, like medicines are made, but it is HARVESTED from other living animals, almost like a farm -- but a really strange farm!
The FIRST insulin was taken from cow and pig pancreases ( the organ that makes insulin). The pancreas was ground up and the insulin extracted. It was first used directly, but many people had allergies to pigs and cows (and some have religious objections), and they often got sicker! It was soon discovered that insulin needs to be PURIFIED.
Colonel Eli Lilly was one of the first to build plants to gather and purify insulin from animal pancreases. Of course, these pancreases come from animals that are being slaughtered for food, so Colonel Lilly built his plant in Indianapolis, IN -- just a few blocks from the Indianapolis Stock Yards, making it easier to get raw materials.
But times changed, and it was no longer so easy to get animal pancreases. In about 1980, it was found that scientists could use GENETIC ENGINEERING to cause yeast cells to make insulin instead of alcohol.
[This is the same yeast used in making bread or beer. When used in making bread and beer, the yeast eat sugar water, and give off carbon dioxide and alcohol. This why bread and beer have bubbles in them, and why bread bakeries smell so great!]
Again, Eli Lilly Company was the FIRST to produce a line of "Recombinant DNA Technology" insulin, insulin made from YEAST, and not pancreases. Still, insulin is made by AN ANIMAL, not a man!
Today, ALL of the worlds insulin, or at least 99.9% of it, is made using "rDNA Technology" using yeast or sometimes E.Coli bacteria. The tiny tiny amount of Animal-based insulin is used ONLY in the veterinary fields, and is no longer licensed for Human use.
Fred Sanger won the Nobel Prize for DISCOVERING the amino acid sequences of Insulin. The three-dimensional structure of DNA was PROVEN by Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin in 1969.
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- micksmixxxLv 79 years ago
God/dess. It is a naturally occurring hormone, produced by the beta cells (islets of Langerhans) of the pancreas of all animals.