Can someone explain hybrid orbitals?

I have finals coming up, and I'm not really prepared, so can you put it in the simplest words possible? Thanks!

2 Answers

  • ?
    Lv 4
    9 years ago

    Hybridisation is a mixing of different orbits.

    Orbits are regions around a nucleus where electrons are likely to be found.

    There are different number of orbits in an atom, and they have different shapes. There is only one s orbit per principle quantum number, and is a spherical in three dimensions.

    There are three p orbits per principle quantum number, and they are like dumb bell shape and point along the three x, y and z- axes.

    If we take C as an example, its electronic configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p2.

    Since, 1s and 2s orbits have two paired electrons, you wouldn't expect these electrons to take part in bonding. Furthermore, each of the 2p electrons would be by themselves in two of the three p orbits. As mentioned above, the p orbits lie 90 degrees to each other. So when C reacts with H, we would expect two H atoms to react with a C atom and the H-C-H bond angle to be 90 degrees.

    However, C forms 4 bonds with 4 H atoms, and the H-C-H bond angle is roughly 109 degrees, i.e., tetrahedral.

    This can be explained if one of the 2s electron is promoted to a vacant 2p orbital and allowing the 2s and three of the 2p orbitals to mix to give four sp3 hybrid orbitals.

    Each of these four sp3 hybrid orbital will have one unpaired electron and will be far away from each other as possible, giving tetrahedral C configuration.

  • John W
    Lv 7
    9 years ago

    {He} 2s2, 2p2 The electrons unpair and form 4 equal orbitals called sp3 Tetrahedral. shape, non- polar.

    Source(s): Teacher
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