HISTORY HELP!!! Colonial Australia!!!?
Given the hypothesis: Australia sought to develop from its convict beginnings in order to establish itself as a self-supporting colony, this determined its drive for independence from Britain during Federation....
What are some dot-point form arguments that I can use to expand it in an essay?
- Anonymous9 years agoFavorite Answer
First settlements were penal colonies with two aims - getting rid of criminals and having a cheap labour force for land clearance and basic infrastrcuture.
You needed convicts in the first instance ( just like Virginia in America ) because few free people would brave the journey in the first place or the working / living conditions in the actual colony.
But you can't build a society with nothing more than unmotivated, unskilled labour. You need professionals and artisans as well.
Free people were eventually enticed out to the existing colonies. New colonies were founded consisting entirely of free settlers ( South Australia for example.)
People who come of their own will are naturally going to be more enterprising and independent-minded than people who are forced. Many of the convicts with determinate sentences actually returned to Britain after these had been served.
So the true beginnings involved the participation of convicts but they were not the true foundation of the Commonwealth of Australia.
Until the 1850s, the vast majority of people living in Australia are British subjects - with a considerable number of Germans in South Australia - mostly focused and agrarian and pastoral activity.
In the 1850s you have the Gold Rush ( like in America ) which attracts a wider variety of people to the continent. Many of these have no particular connection with British heritage or loyalty to the British crown. This fuels the establishment of towns, cities, roads and other infrastructure.
So by 100 years after the First Fleet established Botany Bay you have some more urbanised, educated people and the beginnings of what could be called an Australian identity. A general historical process is that once you get a large enough and enfranchised middle class ( which includes wealthy landowners etc ) the more interest there is in self-determination.
So while there is no war to throw off the 'British Yoke' by the time of federation, the British government accepts that the people of Australian continent should be the ones who benefit from their industry in exchange for keeping nominal suzerainity ( in the form of a Governor General.)
This is basically the arrangement which still stands today, with the Australian government having effective control over policy while the official head of state is the British Monarch.
- Anonymous4 years ago
properly, Captain cook raised the Union Jack of the day on possession Island in 1770 though he only claimed NSW and under no circumstances the West, and his maps talked with reference to the completed position as New Holland. Matthew Flinders called the island continent Australia derived from Terra Australis Incognita, the call on the former maps which skill great Unknown Southern Land. So 'Australia' is basically Latin for South. great. NSW later chop up up into the six colonies who desirous to form the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901 it fairly is at the same time as it became a united states of america though regrettably we kept the Queen as head of state and the Union Jack stayed on the flag. Australia is yet to advance up and end being "Colonial" by utilizing turning right into a Republic and getting its own flag. Then it may declare to be fairly self sustaining.