What was the name for the Christian reconquest of Spain from the Muslims?
- .Lv 59 years agoFavorite Answer
The Reconquista (Spanish: [rekoŋˈkista], Portuguese: [ʁɛkõˈkiʃtɐ], Galician: [rekoŋˈkista], Catalan: Reconquesta [rəkuŋˈkɛstə], "Reconquest"; Arabic: الاسترداد trans. al-ʾIstirdād, [æl ʔɪstɪrˈdæːd], "the Recapturing") was a period of almost 800 years (539 years in Portugal) in the Middle Ages during which several Christian kingdoms succeeded in retaking the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula broadly known as Al-Andalus. The Reconquista of Al-Andalus began soon after the Islamic conquest with an Asturian rebellion under the leadership of the nobleman Pelagius.
The Islamic conquest of the Christian Visigothic Kingdom in the 8th century (begun 711) extended over almost the entire peninsula. After more than 700 years, the Reconquista was completed in 1492, when the last remaining Muslim government, the Nasrid dynasty of the Kingdom of Granada in southern Iberia, was defeated. With the Nasarid defeat, the entire Iberian Peninsula had been brought back under Christian rule.
The Christian reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula began soon after the Islamic conquest of the Visigothic Kingdom. The victory over the Moors at the Battle of Covadonga in 722 was the first major formative event. Charlemagne reconquered the western Pyrenees and Septimania in 778 and formed a Marca Hispanica to defend the border of Christian Frankia against the aggressions of Muslim Al-Andalus. After the advent of the Crusades, much of the ideology of Reconquista was subsumed within the wider context of crusading. Even before the Crusades, there was a steady trickle of soldiers arriving from elsewhere in Europe to participate in the Reconquista as an act of Christian penitence. Crusaders arrived in the County of Portugal, to be led by Afonso Henriques. By 1249, the Portuguese reconquista was complete.
By 1252 most of Iberia was back under Christian rule and the Emirate of Granada was the last Muslim state left in the peninsula. Granada became a vassal state of Christian Castile. This arrangement lasted until 1482 when the Castilians launched the Granada War which ended all Muslim authority in Spain in 1492, completing the Reconquista. The last Muslim ruler of Granada, Muhammad XII, better known as King Boabdil, surrendered his kingdom to Isabella I of Castile, who with her husband Ferdinand II of Aragon were known as the Catholic Monarchs (los Reyes Católicos).
The Reconquista, being of such great duration, is much more complex than any simple account would allow. Christian and Muslim rulers commonly became divided among themselves and fought. Alliances across faith lines were not unusual. The fighting along the Christian–Muslim frontier was punctuated by periods of prolonged peace and truces. Blurring matters even further were the mercenaries who simply fought for whoever paid the most.
The Christian Reconquest
In the 11th Century AD, the power of the Umayyad Caliphs began to wane, the Caliphate disintegrated into a series of separate Islamic Kingdoms known as 'Taifas' (see map 3 - 1036 AD). In the same period, the Christians, who had managed to hold on to a slither of territory in the northernmost part of the peninsula began to get their act together, both culturally and militarily: the Christians recaptured much of central Castile (Toledo, Madrid, and Gudalajara all fell to the Christians in the late 1080s AD), and the start of construction of the Romanesque cathedral in Santiago de Compostela in 1075 AD marks the beginning of large scale Christian building projects to rival that of the great palaces and mosques of Islamic Spain. However the Christian reconquest, or 'reconquista' did not gather real momentum until the 13th century, mainly due to infighting between the various Christian kingdoms. The most famous Christian hero of the so-called 'reconquista', El Cid, actually spent much of his career fighting for one Christian kingdom against another, and even spent some time under the employment of Islamic rulers, fighting against the Christians.
- TophehLv 69 years ago
Yep. Literally 'The Reconquest'