The occupation , or trade of many people determined their names . It was a period when most people were illiterate so they needed to identify a person by other means.
I can only give examples of Anglo - Saxon names
Bowman / Archer - both are self explanatory
Fletcher , - a person who flighted arrows
Baker , - again self explanatory.
Smith - a person working with metals , pre - fix , Gold , Black, etc
Miller / Millar - grinder of cereal- Flour
Ostler , Horseman
Barber - self explanatory .
Tailor , Taylor
Chandler - Supplier of ship requirements