麻子哥 asked in 政治與政府政治 · 9 years ago

何謂暈影(政治學)?

於Griswold v. Connecticut(1965年)一案中,法院認為憲法增修條文,隱含有隱私權係受到保障,以抵抗政府侵害的「暈影」(penumbra),美國聯邦最高法院於本案首度承認隱私權受到憲法所保障。

Update:

請大大們就政治學上回答好嗎?

我的問題是很誠心請教的.

不要來這裡抒發情緒.好嗎?

(網路上我查不到...都是一些光學上的名詞)

3 Answers

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  • 9 years ago
    Favorite Answer

    應該是指"應受保障的權利"並未明白載於法律條文中, 或以清析語句表達. 而僅隱含於條文的意義裡, 需經釋法才能得到明確答案. 故此用半影來形容此類權利的似有若無, 或不完全彰顯.

    pe·num·bra

    3. An area in which something exists to a lesser or uncertain degree: "The First Amendment has a penumbra where privacy is protected from governmental intrusion" (Joseph A. Califano, Jr.)---free online dictionary

    West's Encyclopedia of American Law: Penumbra

    http://www.answers.com/topic/penumbra

    The rights guaranteed by implication in a constitution or the implied powers of a rule.

    The history of the legal use of the penumbra metaphor can be traced to a federal decision written by Justice Stephen J. Field in the 1871 decision of Montgomery v. Bevans, 17 F .Cas. 628 (9th C.C.D. Cal.). ......

    ......Justice Cardozo's use of the penumbra metaphor in opinions written between 1934 and 1941 was similar to Holmes's application, but Justice Douglas took a different approach. Rather than using it to highlight the difficulty of drawing lines or determining the meaning of words or concepts, he used the term when he wanted to refer to a peripheral area or an indistinct boundary of something specific.......Douglas's most famous use of penumbra is in the Griswold decision. ......Since Griswold, the penumbra doctrine has primarily been used to represent implied powers that emanate from a specific rule, thus extending the meaning of the rule into its periphery or penumbra.

    天文學與法律...

    penumbra

    這個字最早由 Kepler (就是高中物理行星三大運動定律那個 Kepler)

    在 1604 年所創造 (coin),字源是 pen (almost) + umbra (shadow)

    指的是日月蝕 (eclipse) 發生時部分光線仍能到達 (沒有完全遮住) 的部分

    稱做 "半影" (相對於 "全影" 而言)

    這個字後來被美國大法官 William O. Douglas 在 1965 年著名的大法官解釋文*

    中用以指涉憲法條文 "曖昧不清的地方" (penumbra),好像 "半影" 一樣。

    之後這個字才流行起來,並常用於法律相關的文章。--sovereignty ptt

  • aloha
    Lv 5
    9 years ago

    此次選舉造勢,讓我認清馬先生的假聖人

    其手段之卑鄙無恥,可是前無先人後無來者

    毫無政績可對國人交代,也無治國政策說服國人之下

    只能耍出各種小人作風來爭取選票保住總統寶座

    這種人格偏差、毫無實力的人有配當國家領導人嗎?

  • 阿公
    Lv 7
    9 years ago

    隱私權 (也許是指=自身私人的問題) 如果是貪贓枉法? 公訴罪? 就沒有隱私權的保護吧?

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