Geology- Earthquakes and Seismograph & Calculations?

What are the different types of seismic waves produced during an earthquake? What are the differences between these waves? How are these waves distinguished? Explain how a seismograph works measures these waves and be able to read a seismogram to determine when the seismic waves arrive at a seismograph.

Seismographic stations report the following S-wave minus P-wave time differences for an earthquake: Dallas, S-P=3 minutes; Los Angeles, S-P=2 minutes; San Francisco, S-P=2 minutes. Use a map of the U.S. and the knowledge that P-waves travel at 3.80 mi/sec and S-waves travel at about 2.54 mi/sec to obtain a rough location for the epicenter of the earthquake.

How do I determine when the earthquake started??

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