Baobao asked in 社會與文化語言 · 8 years ago

這2句英文的意思

1. 請問 More people came to the meeting than were expected.

= More people came to the meeting than we expected.嗎?

那麼were的先行詞或主詞是指句首的More people嗎?

有沒有 More people came to the meeting than was expected.的說法啊?

2. He is mentally ill and cannot be held responsible for his actions.

請問這個片語為什麼要多個held?

它跟be responsible for 是一模一樣的意思嗎?

3 Answers

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  • 8 years ago
    Best Answer

    1. More people came to the meeting than were expected.

    這是 than 當「準關係代名詞」的用法。

    than 是連接詞,但在英文中,有時它不但有連接功能,還可取代主詞或受詞。這點跟關係代名詞很像,所以有文法家將它歸類於準關係代名詞。

    本句,than 是 were expected 的主詞,先行詞是 people。把 than 的子句拿到前面,跟先行詞在一起也可以:

    More people than were expected came to the meeting.

    第二句, More people came to the meeting than we (had) expected. 也是可以的。這時, than 變成 expected 的受詞。 (要是加上 had,讓它成為過去完成式,時間順序看起來會比較順,明確表示比「事先預期」多。)

    最後,既然先行詞是 people,than 子句的動詞就不要用 was。

    2. be held responsible 和 be responsible 雖然都是在講責任,但意思不同。

    中文所謂 「這是你的責任」,能有兩種截然不同的意思。一種是出事究責,表示「這是你的錯,你要負責」。另一種是單純的提醒,表示「這屬於你責任範圍」。

    英語則有分別。「to hold 某人 responsible (for)」 是在究責,表示「惟某人是問」或「歸罪於某人」。 而 be responsible (for) 不一定有負面意思,大都是偏重在講「責任」或「職責」。 例如:

    If anything goes wrong, I will hold you responsible.

    若出了什麼差錯,我要你負責。(我惟你是問)

    I am responsible for the whole department.

    我負責全部門。 (指全部門都是我的責任範圍)

    He is mentally ill and cannot be held responsible for his actions.

    (他精神有病,所作所為不能究責於他。)

    這裡 cannot be held responsible 是被動,要表達的意思是「不能被歸罪」,所以 held 一定要有才行。

  • 8 years ago

    Thanks for your explanation. It's really helpful.

  • 8 years ago

    More是比較級形容詞, 與後面的than並用.

    本句的than稱為準關係代名詞, 族群另有as與but, 一共三個. 它不是真的關代, 本身是連接詞卻具有關代的特性.

    than were expected是被動, than we expected是主動, 文法語意都不相等.

    than were expected = than people who were expected

    用was是不對的, 因為這裡的比較對象不可能只有一人, 而是另一個people.

    2011-10-06 08:51:49 補充:

    be responsible for 是主動的負責任

    be held responsible for 是受人或法規的約束而負責任.

    He is mentally ill and (he) cannot be held responsible for his actions.

    = He is mentally ill and we cannot hold him responsible for his actions.

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