It would Vary considerably
depending on what part of the 1800s, and the class of the people,concerned.
There were stoves in the 1800s, and people did make their own bread. But there were also bakers shops where bread and cakes could be purchased. often bakers would sell stale loaves and cakes cheap to their poorest customers.
In the early 1800s, beer was still widely drunk as an everyday beverage, even for children (small beer was very weak). But by the late 1800s, the temperance movement had persuaded many people to change to drinking tea. This led to a sharp rise in malnutrition among the poor, as beer contains quite a lot of nutrition, whereas tea has none.
Bread and potatoes were the staples of the poor person's diet. Poor people who lived in the country we're likely to have a small garden and grow their own vegetables, they might keep a few chickens, or a pig to fatten up during summer and kill in the autumn to provide a supply of ham, bacon etc. They would gather wild fruit, nuts eh from the hedgerows.
Poor people in towns were generally worse off, as they had to rely on their scanty wages to provide what they needed. bread, potatoes, perhaps a little bacon or cheese, and the occasional cheap cut of meat like neck of lamb, or a sheep's head. There were lots of street sellers selling cheap food liked baked potatoes, pig's trotters, eels, sausages, pies etc. in the late 1800s, fried fish and chips
became a popular dish with the poor.
For the better off, there was more money to spend on food, but much more reliance on seasonal produce than nowadays. Pies, puddings, roasts, and stews were popular, and an economical household would make much use of leftovers, serving the remains of a roast the next day as shepherds pie for instance.
The wealthy would be able to enjoy more exotic fare, and dinners were often very elaborate meals, with five courses at least, sometimes more. Breakfast, which in the early 1800s was usually a very light meal, just toast and coffee, became massive by the late 1800s. in an upper class household, there would be a buffet with an array of dishes set out, bacon and eggs, sausages, kedgeree (curried eggs, rice, and smoked fish) , cold ham, chops, toast and preserves, etc. Luncheon was normally a light meal for the upper and middle classes, with the new fashion for 'afternoon tea'. Rifting the gap between luncheon and dinner.
Sugar was much cheaper by the 1800s than it had been in earlier centuries, and sweetshops were quite common. Even the children of the poor might have an occasional penny to spend on sweets.
Generally, plain food was thought to be best for children, and even the children of the wealthy were fed a very bland diet, with things like bread and butter, plainly cooked meat and vegetables, rice pudding etc featuring prominently. Children looked forward to parties, where they could eat cakes, sweets, ices, etc, which made a change from their normal rather dull diet.
Taste by Kate Colquhon