Jack asked in Social SciencePsychology · 9 years ago

Do you take psychology?

Hey, I have an test coming up and there are a few things I need help on. It's my first college psychology test and I want to get a perfect score!!!!!

That being said if you could give me any information on the following it would really help me achieve my goal:

Roots of psychology

First psychology lab

How psychology evolved from structuralism to functionalism, to … humanism to cognitive neuroscience (Know one psychologist from each area). Know generally what each different school was most concerned with.

Wundt, Tichener, James, Watson, Skinner, Rogers, Maslow, Washburn, Piaget, Chomsky, Darwin, Calkins, Clark


Behaviorism and reinforcement

Demand characteristics

Informed consent and debriefing, protection from harm, risk-benefit analysis, freedom from coercion

Action potential – electrical stimulation

Various types of neurotransmitters and the functions in which they are involved. For ex., Dopamine regulates motor behavior, motivation, pleasure.

Ach, Dopamine, Glutamate & GABA, Norepinephrine, Endorphins

What does an agonist do?

Organization of the nervous system

Autonomic vs. somatic, sympathetic vs. parasympathetic, peripheral vs. central

Reflex arc, simple spinal reflexes. Know ex. of when this may occur.

Tectum and tegmentum

Damage to hippocampus?


Definitions of “sensation” and “perception”

Gustav Fechner, psychophysics

Absolute threshold, JND

Myopia, hyperopia

How does the brain “organize” the visual stimuli coming in through the eyes?

Depth perception: Monocular and Binocular cues

Binocular (retinal) disparity

I know thats a lot but thats not even the majority of it... I'll be up all night studying. Feel free to add anything you know (you don't need to answer everything) from the above list.

Much appreciated,


p.s. This is a intro class is kicking my butt!

2 Answers

  • 9 years ago
    Favorite Answer

    Psychoanalysis (psychodynamics) was the first school of psychology, and was the brainchild of Sigmund Freud. Freud believed that it is our unconcious' influence on our conciousness that dictates our behaviours. It is deterministic (as opposed to free will). Whilst Freud is criticised for an overemphasis on sex (seen in his Psychosexual stages of development and his theory on infantile sexuality), he is still one of the most influential psychologists of all time. He proposed that our mind is made up of the Id, Ego and Superego, and that our unconcious protects us from harmful memories through defense mechanisms, such as regression, repression, sublimation, etc. Defense mechanisms can be used to explain phobias and PTSD. Addictions can be explained by fixations at a psychosexual stage. Treatments of psychoanalysis include dream analysis (very subjective, latent content and manifest content), therapies such as ink blot tests and word association tasks, and hypnosis (all designed to free up communication with the unconcious and the Id).

    Behaviourism - the second paradigm, taking over from psychoanalysis, believes that we are all born as 'blank slates' and it is the environment and those around us that determine our behaviours and what kind of person we are. Again, it is very deterministic. It is comprised of Classical conditioning (Pavlov and his dogs, Little Albert case study) about associations and learning conditioned responses, Operant conditioning, (Skinner and his pidgeons/rats) about rewards and punishment reinforcing a good or bad behaviour. (Positive/Negative reinforcement gives a nice stimulus/takes a bad stimulus away to increase a behaviour, Positive/Negative punishment gives a bad stimulus/takes a good stimulus to decrease a behaviour), and Social Learning Theory (Bandura and his Bobo doll, also used to explain aggression). SLT focuses upon observation, modelling and reinforcement of an observed behaviour (Attention paid > Retention of action > Immitation (if incentive outweighs an observed consequence)), but also has links to cognitive psychology, making it "the bridge" between these two schools.

    Cognitivism - Focuses upon memory, thoughts, intelligence, linguistics etc. It is is more in favour of free will, and looks at the thoughts behind a behaviour. "The computer theory" and "the black box" are both theories of cognitivism. Beck and Ellis are significant psychologists here. CBT is the main therapy, which is also a talking therapy. It works with both cognitivism and behaviourism, and can also work in tandem with biological treatments (drugs) to combat anxiety or mood disorders such as depression. It is very successful, and teaches coping methods, however a person must be intellegent to understand how the therapy is challenging their negative thoughts.

    The Biological Aproach - Is concerned with genetics and the workings of the body, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, chemicals and enzymes etc. and believes that behaviour is down to genetics or an imbalance of one of these other things. Darwin was particularly influential here, especially concerning the subcategory: evolutionary psychology, which believes we are how we are because it was essential to have behavioural responses such as protection of offspring back all the way to prehistoric times. It believes our main goals are the survival of our genes, eliminating as much competition as possible (explaining responses to jealousy, infedelity, cuckoldry etc). Therapies include psychosurgery (used to 'fix' mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia and depression, with surgeries such as labotomies and laproscopies), ECT (electro-convulsive therapy) and drugs. These treatments can be outdated (surgery) unethical (ECT) or can cause side effects (drugs - dependancy, allergies, etc). However, drugs have proven to be effective worldwide, especially in conjunction with other therapies, such as CBT. Schizophrenia is mainly handled by drugs, because talking therapies appear to have little effect apart from teaching coping strategies - they do not address the 'cause' which could be an imbalance of dopamine in the brain.

    Demand characteristics are a methodological issue in laboratory experiments in particular, which states the participants couldact the way they believe the researcher WANTS them to act, and so it is not a true representation of their behaviour. Other methodological issues include self-fulfilling prophecy, ratmorphism, ecological validity (part of external validity), internal validity (such as face validity- does it investigate what it claims to?), problems with sampling, etc.

    Good luck on your exam! If you need any more help, feel free to drop me an email. There's a lot of points i've made that i can expand on if you need me to,and yahoo made me cut down my info, so i do have info on neurotransmitters and hormones as well.

    Source(s): http://psychology.about.com/od/historyofpsychology... www.simplypsychology.org Informed consent, debriefing, protection, deception etc. are all ethical issues defined by the BPS, here: http://www.simplypsychology.org/Ethics.html A Level Psychology
  • Anonymous
    9 years ago

    No its a boring subject.

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