Most blues music works around set structures - usually with rather highly cliché licks that makes it taste the way it does. The blues is almost always about anguish and contains a lot of bent notes and microtones. The blues tends to (and this is a complete generalization) work around basic harmony - Chord I, IV and V - often major with a minor 7th on top (or Dominant chord in classical terms) - it will nearly always stick to one scale - a common blues scale consists of:
Root, minor 3 (often just a slightly flattened major, always a real note in this context), major 3, perfect 4, diminished 5th (again sometimes just a slightly flattened perfect 5th), perfect 5th, major 6th and minor 7th.
Jazz on the other hand, often features much more complex structures and harmony. In a lot of Jazz, this structure is repeated with a melody (called the 'head') in between which musicians take turns to improvise - however, this isn't the case in Big Band, for example, or in more modern Jazz works which don't use this structure at all. In jazz chord extensions and voicings tend to bigger and more varied. Its not uncommon to find complex chords such as the V7#9 or minormajor 7s.