英文用字與用法

1. 請問 profit與profitability除了有可數與不可數名詞的差別且profit的片語和例句很多之外, 這兩字用法上的差異?

2. 我在一則比賽的評審們的對話上看到"He didn't give enough evidence to support his points. I gave him an 87." 為什麼87前面要多個冠詞呢?

3. "American high schools usually teach to the middle which allows many of America's brightest to breeze through high school with little effort." 請問這句裡teach後面有to與沒有to語意上的差別? 還有, which前面是否應該多個逗點?

4.我在一篇"關係子句的限定與非限定用法"其中的例句解說有些疑問:

(A) Make good use of your talent, which may bring you a promising future.

(B) Make good use of your talent which may bring you a promising future.

(A)句裡的which到底是指前面的talent,還是指整個前半句?

(A)句與(B)句的中文翻譯應分別怎麼翻才好?

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  • PONY
    Lv 7
    8 years ago
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    1. 請問 profit與profitability除了有可數與不可數名詞的差別且profit的片語和例句很多之外, 這兩字用法上的差異? 這兩字最大的差異在於「語意」的不同:profit (n.) 贏餘,利潤,賺頭profitability是源自profitable (adj.) 有利可圖的,可賺錢的 (就如capable→capability),profitability指具有賺取利潤的特質或能力;而profit是透過這種能力賺取來的標的物。 The profitability of that industry is not that robust. (該產業的獲利能力不是很強→不是很有賺頭),該句也可用profit改寫成:

    =The profit that industry is able to make is not that robust. That industry is again creating jobs and has returned to profitability. (回復到有利潤的那種能力) 2. 我在一則比賽的評審們的對話上看到"He didn't give enough evidence to support his points. I gave him an 87." 為什麼87前面要多個冠詞呢?

    這應該主要是英美人士在給學生或比賽選手打成績時,就是習慣會在該得分 (分級制或分數制)之前加個 a/an,就如同台灣小學生某學期的成績得了四個「甲」和一個「乙」,或考了兩個90分同樣的道理。

    I give him an A plus.

    I give him an A on content, B on delivery. I give him an A for that homework.He's grateful I gave him an A in Nineteenth Century Romanticism. 3. "American high schools usually teach to the middle which allows many of America's brightest to breeze through high school with little effort." 請問這句裡teach後面有to與沒有to語意上的差別? 還有, which前面是否應該多個逗點?

    該句指「美國高中教學難易度通常(不會太難)只介於中間程度,而這樣的一種適中的難易度,是得以讓許多資優生不費吹灰之力,就可順利地從高中結業的那種程度」。

    講到「教學要教到哪個層次的難易度」,英語就是慣用 to teach to the ….(level),請參下列類似句構:

    Teaching to the lower middle simply does not provide the level of challenge needed by gifted students. As a result, the smartest students are often unproductive and bored.

    如果把to略去就成 teach the middle (lower middle),變成教學的對象是一羣甚麼樣階級的人,就和原句要表達的原意相去甚遠,也不合整句的語意邏輯。Which前不加逗點目的在於,寫作者在替他所謂的middle在下定義 (否則讀者會弄不懂作者所謂的middle是以甚麼做標準,不講明讀者就有個自不同的解讀。如果加了逗點,表示他在針對American high schools usually teach to the middle這句產生的後果做進一步資訊的說明。

    4.我在一篇"關係子句的限定與非限定用法"其中的例句解說有些疑問:

    (A) Make good use of your talent, which may bring you a promising future.

    (B) Make good use of your talent which may bring you a promising future.

    (A)句裡的which到底是指前面的talent,還是指整個前半句? 指前半句會產生後半句的效果。

    (A)句與(B)句的中文翻譯應分別怎麼翻才好? (A) 善用你的天賦,那麼你就會有個光明的前程。(B) 好好善用會替你帶來光明前程的天賦。

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