what should be capitalize in the sentences?
Galileo, a renaissance scientist, held to the same view as copernicus, a polish astronomer who taught that the earth revolved around the sun.
The roman catholic leaders of the inquisition denied the copernican theory and persecuted the great italian scientist for his belief in it.
In isaiah 40:22, the bible clearly states that the earth is not flat, but round.
The empire state building on thirty-fourth street in new york was once the tallest building in the world.
- imacatholic2Lv 79 years agoFavorite Answer
The inaccuracy of your sentence is more important then capitalization.
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543), a Catholic clergyman and scientist theorized a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology, which placed the Sun at the fixed center of the universe instead of the Earth (which, by the way, was wrong). This theory was widely accepted as a legitimate theory in the scientific world of the time. Tools like telescopes had not yet been invented to help prove the theory.
Galileo (1564–1642) improved the telescope and was able to record astronomical observations that supported but did not prove Copernicus. In 1611, he made a triumphant visit to Rome, where Pope Paul V assured him of his support and good will.
Galileo felt that he had to convince the world that heliocentricism was true without further evidence. If he had just stated that Copernicanism was a hypothesis, one superior to the Ptolemiaic (geocentric) system, until further proof could be found (as the scientific method requires) then he would not have gotten into trouble.
Instead Galileo said that the scientific community and the Church either had to accept Copernicanism as a fact (even though it had not been proved) and reinterpret Scripture accordingly; or they had to condemn it. He allowed no middle room. It was Galileo's pride and arrogance that got him into trouble, not his science.
By the way, the heliocentric theory that claimed the sun was the fixed center of the universe instead of the Earth, was also incorrect. The sun is the center of the solar system but not the universe and the sun itself moves, it is not fixed.
The Church quickly got over Galileo's excesses. Pope Benedict XIV granted an imprimatur (an official approval) to the first edition of the Complete Works of Galileo in 1741.
“[Galileo] declared explicitly that the two truths, of faith and of science, can never contradict each other, 'Sacred Scripture and the natural world proceeding equally from the divine Word, the first as dictated by the Holy Spirit, the second as a very faithful executor of the commands of God', as he wrote in his letter to Father Benedetto Castelli on 21 December 1613. The Second Vatican Council says the same thing, even adopting similar language in its teaching: 'Methodical research, in all realms of knowledge, if it respects... moral norms, will never be genuinely opposed to faith: the reality of the world and of faith have their origin in the same God' (Gaudium et Spes, 36). Galileo sensed in his scientific research the presence of the Creator who, stirring in the depths of his spirit, stimulated him, anticipating and assisting his intuitions”: John Paul II, Address to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences (10 November 1979): Insegnamenti, II, 2 (1979), 1111-1112. From the Vatican website: http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/enc...
For more information, see:
+ The Heavenly City of the Eighteenth-Century Philosophers (1963) by Carl Becker
+ Galileo’s Daughter (2000), by Dava Sobel
+ Galileo, Science, and the Church (1992) by Jerome J. Langford
+ The Devil’s Delusion: Atheism and its Scientific Pretensions (2009) by David Berlinski
+ Seven Lies About Catholic History (2010) by Diane Moczar
With love in Christ
- 9 years ago
1. Renaissance, Copernicus, Polish
2. Roman, Catholic, Inquisition, Copernican, Italian
3. Isaiah, Bible
4. Empire State Building, Thirty-Fourth Street, New York
- Anonymous9 years ago
i might miss some but for the first sentence im positive the C in copernicus.
The Roman Catholic leaders of the inquisition denied the Copernican Theory and persecuted the great Italian scientist for his belief in it.
In Isaiah 40:22 the Bible clearly states that the earth is not flat, but round.
The Empires State Building on Thirty-Fourth Street in New York was once the tallest building in the world.
sorry, if i missed some
- Anonymous9 years ago
Galileo, a R*enaissance scientist, held to the same view as C*opernicus, a P*olish astronomer who taught that the earth revolved around the sun.
The R*oman C*atholic leaders of the inquisition denied the C*opernican T*heory and persecuted the great I*talian scientist for his belief in it.
In I*saiah 40:22, the bible clearly states that the earth is not flat, but round.
The empire state building on thirty-fourth street in N*ew Y*ork was once the tallest building in the world.
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- DaverLv 79 years ago
The celebrated case of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), Italian physicist and astronomer, whose conflict with ecclesiastical authorities has become part of world history. In 1616 he was brought before the Inquisition on the charge of ignoring the implications of the Copernican(heliocentric) theory, which seemed to contradict the biblical story of the stopping of the sun in the Book of Joshua. Significantly, the Polish astronomer Copernicus in the previous century had dedicated to Pope Paul III in 1543 his published theory that the sun ins the center of a great system and that the earth is a planet revolving about it. In obedience to the ruling of the Inquisition, Galileo promised not to teach Copernicus' theory as anything as a hypothesis, as in fact the proofs for the theory (on modern scientific principles) were not conclusive. In 1632, Galileo was again asked to come to Rome, this time for alleged breach of contract, since he had meantime published a satirical work, Dialogue, bitterly attacking his opponents. He was detained for twenty-two days in the buildings of the Holy Office, and he promised not to urge the Copernican system as a proved fact. Before he died in Florence in 1642, he received the special blessing of Pope Urban VIII. No question of papal infallibility was involved. In Galileo's case the Church defined nothing and uttered no doctrine. It made a disciplinary prohibition to protect the faithful from the disturbing effect of a then unproved hypothesis. St. Robert Bellarmine, who was involved in the Galileo affair, wrote that if a real proof were found that the sun was fixed and did not revolve around the earth, "it would be necessary to acknowledge that the passages in Scripture which appear to contradict this fact have been misunderstood." Recent scholarship has shown that the document that led to Galileo's trial in Rome (1633) was a forgery. It had been planted in the Roman Curia by an unscrupulous official. It falsely charged Galileo with having been enjoined seventeen years before from teaching the Copernican system. Galileo's famous trial, therefore, was based on this "document," which he had never before seen. In 1979, Pope John Paul II called for the formal exoneration of Galileo.
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- 9 years ago