Pone asked in 社會與文化語言 · 10 years ago

形容詞子句的用法及省略

Since no one really knows all the combinations of conditions under which life can evolve,it is best to be conservative about denying the existence of life on any planet.

請問: (1)Since no…. under which life can evolve可否寫成Since no…. which life can evolve under,(which)可省略嗎?Which=conditions做為介詞under的受詞?

本句不可寫成... which life can evolve under ...,因為under which是一個介系詞片語,不可將兩者分開。只有在介系詞屬於動詞片語的一部分時,才有前後移動的可能。這裡的which不可省略,否則介系詞片語就不完整,而有語病了。which所指的就是先行詞conditions。

請教Louis:依照你的解釋,which不可省略,上例中which life can evolve,(which既然為先行詞conditions,但which所引導的形容詞子句似乎不是做子句的主詞,也不做動詞evolve的受詞??請問這邊evolve是做及物動詞或是不及物動詞呢?)我的疑問是: 1.如果evolve為及物動詞,那麼which=coditions應該做其受詞才對? 故which可省略? 即 conditions under (which) life can evolve(vt)+受詞(=conditions??)2.如果evolve為不及物動詞,那麼其後應該要有介詞才對? 而且介詞可放在關係代名詞前或不及物動詞evolve後即conditions under which life can evolve(vi) +介詞?或conditions under+介詞 which life can evolve(vi)

1 Answer

Rating
  • Louis
    Lv 7
    10 years ago
    Favorite Answer

    Since no one really knows all the combinations of conditions under which life can evolve,it is best to be conservative about denying the existence of life on any planet.

    請問: (1)Since no…. under which life can evolve可否寫成Since no…. which life can evolve under,(which)可省略嗎?Which=conditions做為介詞under的受詞?

    本句不可寫成... which life can evolve under ...,因為under which是一個介系詞片語,不可將兩者分開。只有在介系詞屬於動詞片語的一部分時,才有前後移動的可能。這裡的which不可省略,否則介系詞片語就不完整,而有語病了。which所指的就是先行詞conditions。

    請教Louis:依照你的解釋,which不可省略,上例中which life can evolve,(which既然為先行詞conditions,但which所引導的形容詞子句似乎不是做子句的主詞,也不做動詞evolve的受詞??請問這邊evolve是做及物動詞或是不及物動詞呢?)

    evolves在子句中是不及物動詞。which = all the combinations of conditions。which所引導的形容詞子句是當前面那個名詞片語all the combinations of conditions的[修飾語]。under which在這個形容詞子句之中屬副詞性質的修飾語,修飾述部can evolve。

    形容詞子句中受格的關係代名詞可省略。如:

    This is the house (which/that) we decided to buy.

    但名詞子句中的疑問詞不能省略。如:

    Please tell me what the teacher said.我的疑問是: 1.如果evolve為及物動詞,那麼which=coditions應該做其受詞才對? 故which可省略? 即 conditions under (which) life can evolve(vt)+受詞(=conditions??)

    如果把which省略,名詞life立刻就變成介系詞的受詞,後面的子句就沒有主詞。全句的結構就亂了。

    2.如果evolve為不及物動詞,那麼其後應該要有介詞才對?

    可以沒有介系詞在後面。純指演進。如:These plants evolved undisturbed for millions of years. (字典例句,Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners 2007 edition p.506)

    有介系詞時,是evolve from xxx或evolve into xxx,意思不同。

    如 Birds evolved from dinosaurs.(A自B演化而來)

    Slowly, these tiny organisms evolved into multicelled creatures.(A演化成B)而且介詞可放在關係代名詞前或不及物動詞evolve之後?

    即conditions under which life can evolve(vi) +介詞?或conditions under+介詞 which life can evolve(vi)

    因為conditions和live沒有evolve的關係,而且under也不是和evolve形成動詞片語。所以你寫的狀況都不成立。但是如果是evolve from或evolve into這種動詞片語,介系詞from/into就可以移動了。如:... dinosaurs from which birds evolved...或...dinosaurs which birds evolved from...兩者都正確。

Still have questions? Get your answers by asking now.