No. One country cannot prosecute for actions taken place in another country. This is also why 18-20 year olds can drink in Mexico, 18 is the drinking age there.
Although Amsterdam recently outlawed foreigners from being able to buy marijuana in Coffee Shops there anyway, so this is pretty irrelevant. You won't be able to smoke there anymore anyway.
Also- technically speaking, smoking marijuana isn't a crime, possession of it is. You can walk right up to a police officer and tell him you have smoked marijuana in the past few days, and that would not be an arrestible offense. You'd be searched on the spot for evidence of drugs, but unless you are caught with marijuana or paraphanalia in your possession, you cannot be convicted. There is no charge for "smoking marijuana" or "getting high", only for possession.