Ho-yin
Lv 4
Ho-yin asked in 社會及文化語言 · 9 years ago

再探英語 -ing形式

參見以下問題及意見:

http://hk.knowledge.yahoo.com/question/question?qi...

英語中的 -ing形式有時會稱為 present participle, 有時會稱為 gerund

在許多情況下兩者都不難區分,

但是有些情況卻較難分辨:

On being introduced, British people often shake hands.

They left without saying goodbye.

After returning my library books, I borrowed some magazines.

While speaking on the phone, she doodled.

By appealing to the emotion of the public, the advertisement achieves its end.

我們應該如何判斷兩者?

一: "形式(form)決定了一切"

如果 -ing前的是介詞, 如何判斷?

如果 -ing前的是連詞?

如果 -ing前的可以是介詞或連詞?

如果 -ing前無字?

二: "取決於意義與角色"

不應該以前面的字的詞性來判斷, 而是考慮 -ing 本身的角色.

如果是主語/動詞賓語/介詞賓語?

如果是補語? The police got the traffic moving.

如果是修飾成分?

謝謝.

Update:

The police got the traffic moving.

這個 "got" 有使役含義.

我覺得 moving 是 present participle.

警察使交通動起來. (意思是警察指揮交通, 結果交通動起來.)

Update 2:

其實我想問的是:

"區分-ing屬participle/gerund 準則為何"

4 Answers

Rating
  • 9 years ago
    Favorite Answer

    V + ing" can be regarded as gerund or persent participle. Or it is used under continuous tense.

    The case:

    We are not to supplying vegetables.

    "supplying", may be regarded as a participle.

    講到 ING 如果想加長句子,,是否在句子最後的名詞之後加動詞,而這個動詞只要加了 ING , 便合文化了, 這樣便有新的內容了. 就像以上兩句一樣...

    咁樣講係有少少錯...除左加ing外, 有時係要加ed

    最基本既句型結構係SVO/SVC

    S=subject, V=verb/ auxilary verb, O=object, C=complement

    S同O/C, 都係由noun組成。

    Case 2:

    好似Sam is a waiter.

    你可以向最後面加個個v+ing, 將個noun變做一個noun-clause,

    Sam is a waiter serving many customers.

    Case 3:

    但係, 有時要用v+ed,

    Sam is a waiter employed by Dick.

    點解有咁既分別?

    因為佢地其實有個名叫做persent participle/past participle,

    向Case 2入面, 因為waiter serve一個customer, 係主動, 所以用persent participle,

    向case 3, 因為waiter is employed, 係被動的, 所以用past participle

    你既講法可以算係正確, 但並唔係任何情況之下通用。正確既講法應該係用clause尼加長句子, 而clause有分好多種, 如上文所舉的noun-clause, 仲有其他如that- clause等

    向noun clause入面, verb會被幻化為participle, 而且要注意係active定係passive, 而分別用persent participle或者 past participle.

    至於第一個問題:

    I want to do as soon as do.

    我個人就未見過呢種句型...所以唔敢話錯..

    as soon as可以睇成一個adverb...

    所以有"as adv. as"+ adj.

    又或者用佢既時候要前後平衡..

    eg. Maxi is as handsomely as Dick.

    至於呢句:

    The famous restautant, which had many people eating the dinner

    並唔係一句完整句子...呢個只係一個noun..

    「The famous restautant」= 「which had many people eating the dinner」

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  • Ho-yin
    Lv 4
    9 years ago

    我想, 這個問題, 還是不好在yahoo 這裡找答案...

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  • 9 years ago

    1) On...............................(adv)

    being introduced,...(pre.p + p.p=passive voice in adv clause.)

    British peaple often shake hands.

    2) They left

    without saying goodbye.( gerund phrase as noun in prep. phrase. )

    3) After returning my ribrary books,(present participle as verb in adv clause)

    I borrowed some magazines

    4) while speaking on the phone, she doodled. ( The same as no. 3. )

    5) By appealing to the emotion of public. (gerund as noun in prep.phrase.)

    the advertisement achieves its end.

    2011-06-19 23:01:44 補充:

    是gerund或participle就是要看它是何角色:

    V~ing作adv...adj...verb是participle.

    V~ing作noun...subject...object...complement...and in prep. phrase 是gerund.

    2011-06-19 23:14:51 補充:

    The police got

    the traffic moving.=那交通的 [移動=noun角色].=GERUND.

    2011-06-20 08:34:28 補充:

    回覆Ahhhh :

    without saying goodbye. 是一prepositional phrase,去作They left的adverb.

    By appealing to......of......, 整句也是一prepositional phrase,去作下句的adverb.

    Ho-Yin的重黠是V~ing的分別, 她不至於到連全是adverbial都不知.

    2011-06-20 12:06:35 補充:

    Ahhhh: " The traffic moving." =object=noun=gerund.

    got=vt................The police=subject.

    participle分詞,是不能作subject...object...noun用,

    ........................只宜作verb...adj...adv用.

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  • 9 years ago

    I think you are a grammar nuts! Can you tell me if my guess is correct?

    All those present participles function as adjectives.

    2011-06-20 02:16:14 補充:

    sik-hung's answer isn't 100% correct, and I can't understand his explanation, though! By appealing... (It couldn't be a gerund.) and without saying good-bye isn't a gerund phrase, but it's an adverbial phrase.

    2011-06-20 10:41:38 補充:

    sik-hung, moving isn't a gerund.

    The police got the traffic moving. (Moving is a present participle in describing the police got the traffic)

    After returning... (it's a gerund!)

    2011-06-20 21:31:21 補充:

    sik-hung, moving isn't a noun but it's an adjective. moving in this sentence acts more likely to be an adjective than a noun, so it couldn't be a gerund! No formula please and it isn't a Math course!

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