Maybe, sort of...
A 3-way switch works as follows, power starts at one switch, 2 travelers go to the other 3-way and a switch leg from there to the light. If the switch in question is the first switch in line you surely have no wires from that box up to the fan. If it is the second one you have ONE switch leg to the light. There is a VERY slim chance there is another wire going to the light from that location. If so you are in luck, sort of. You would loose the 3-way ability as I'm not aware of any 3-way fan/light controllers.
Now then, consider this, a remote control instead of changing the switch? It involves installing a receiver at the fan which can be a little tricky due to space restrictions, but you can do it I'm sure. And if you wanted to control the light/fan from 2 locations buy a second kit and put both transmitters on the same code as the receiver. If you are concerned about misplacing the remote, just mount the wall bracket next to the switch and leave it hanging there all the time. I have 5 fans set up that way.
Hope this helps.
a licensed electrician