YANKS asked in 社會與文化語言 · 9 years ago

英文if的用法

請幫忙分析以下3句語意文法

1.If she took that train yesterday, she arrived at 10 this morning.

2.If she took that train yesterday, she is somewhere in town today.

3.If she took that train yesterday, we will see her tomorrow.

Update:

4.If she took that train yesterday, she would arrive at 10 this morning.

4 Answers

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  • 9 years ago
    Favorite Answer

    1.If she took that train yesterday, she arrived at 10 this morning.

    昨天她若搭上那班火車, 那麼她今天上午十點鐘就到達了.

    2.If she took that train yesterday, she is somewhere in town today.

    昨天她若搭上那班火車, 那麼她今天就在市區某處了.

    3.If she took that train yesterday, we will see her tomorrow.

    昨天她若搭上那班火車, 那麼咱們明天就可見到她.

    以上三句都是符合文法的正確句子, 但都不是假設語氣

    而是與事實相符的直說語氣.

    樓上Louis大師是把它們改為假設語氣來講解, 非常精湛

    但版主所提出的這三個句子並無錯誤.

    4.If she took that train yesterday, she would arrive at 10 this morning. (X)

    這句是錯誤的, 錯在語氣錯亂; If子句是直說語氣的過去事件, 主要子句卻用假設語氣would arrive.

    雖然would arrive可以是「過去之未來式」直說語氣, 但不適用於本句, 因為主句時態是與說話時間相比的, 而非與搭車動作相比.

    茲訂正如下:

    If she took that train yesterday, she arrived at 10 this morning. (O)

    <--- 這是直說語氣, 是與事實相符的因果句.

    If she had taken that train yesterday, she would have arrived at 10 this morning. (O)

    <--- 前後都是與過去事實相反的假設語氣. (事實是她昨天沒搭上那班火車, 今晨十點鐘也沒到達)

    If she had taken that train yesterday, she would arrive now. (O)

    <--- If子句是過去事實相反的假設語氣, 主要子句是與現在事實相反的假設語氣. (事實是她昨天沒搭上那班火車, 現在也沒到達)

    Source(s): 英語不是母語的我們, 一定要搞定文法, 否則絕不可能學好英文.
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  • 9 years ago

    如果這是版大自己的造句,那只有 3,4 完全正確。

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  • Louis
    Lv 7
    9 years ago

    1.If she took that train yesterday, she arrived at 10 this morning.

    2.If she took that train yesterday, she is somewhere in town today.

    3.If she took that train yesterday, we will see her tomorrow.

    上面這三句都錯了,應用假設語氣的動詞,因為所談的這些事都與事實不符.應改成下面的方式:

    1. If she had taken that train yesterday, she would have arrived at 10 this morning.

    條件子句與過去的實況不符,主要子句中所談的結果在過去未曾發生。(過去完成+過去完成)

    2. If she had taken that train yesterday, she would be somewhere in town today.

    條件子句與過去的實況不符,主要子句所談的結果與現在的事實不符。(過去完成+過去)

    3. If she had taken that train yesterday, we would see her tomorrow.

    條件子句與過去的實況不符,主要子句中所談的結果在未來不會發生。(過去完成+過去)

    2011-06-10 21:49:45 補充:

    Cavalier大師的說明是正確的。因為一件事的是否屬實,與事實的真假並無絕對的關係,只是一種判斷,而且是由說話的人來判斷,如果他判斷所談的事可能屬實時,會用直說語氣。我沒有想到這一部分,在此為本人的設想不周,向提問者致歉,並向Cavalier致謝,謝謝指教。

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  • 9 years ago

    其實這三個句子的重點不是在If

    而是在於時間吧

    1.如果她昨天搭火車,她會在今天早上10點到達

    2.如果她昨天搭火車,他今天會在某個鎮裡

    3.如果她昨天搭火車,我們將會在明天看到她

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