Is Glass A Liquid Or A Solid? you like to ask?
And do you have any good recommendation of book on Glass Making/Blowing/History?
- Bradley PLv 710 years agoFavorite Answer
Glass is a super-viscous liquid. It's so thick that it behaves more or less like a solid at room temperature, while keeping the random molecular structure of a liquid (which is why the stuff is fragile). Some metals can be tricked, through a combination of chemistry and slow cooling, to form "glasses" or super-viscous states.
One moment while I look something up....Ok, I found a list of references, I think most of these are actual books....
1.^ a b c Frank, S 1982. Glass and Archaeology. Academic Press: London. ISBN 0122656202
2.^ Freestone, I. 1991. Looking into Glass. In S. Bowman (ed.) Science and the Past. pp.37–56. University of Toronto Press: Toronto & Buffalo. ISBN 0714120715
3.^ Pollard, A.M. and C. Heron 2008. Archaeological Chemistry. The Royal Society of Chemistry ISBN 0854042628
4.^ a b c d e Cummings, K. 2002. A History of Glassforming. University of Pennsylvania Press ISBN 0812236475
5.^ Fischer, A (1999). "Glass Production Activities as Practised at Sepphoris, Israel (37 ?–? 1516)". Journal of Archaeological Science 26: 893. doi:10.1006/jasc.1999.0398.
6.^ Mariacher, G. 1970. Glass: from Antiquity to the Renaissance. The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited: Middlesex.
7.^ Zerwick, C. 1980. A Short History of Glass. The Corning Museum of Glass Press; Corning, New York. ISBN 0810938014
8.^ a b c d Stern, E.M. & B. Schlick-Nolte 1994. Early Glass of the Ancient World 1600 BC – AD 50. Ernesto Wolf Collection. Verlag Gerd Hatje: Ostfildern.
9.^ a b Gudenrath, W. & D. Whitehouse 1990. The Manufacture of the Vase of its Ancient Repair. In Journal of Glass Studies 32: 108–121.
10.^ Lightfoot, C.S. 1987. A Group of early Roman Mould-Blown Flasks from the West. In Journal of Glass Studies 29: 11–18.
11.^ a b c d Price, J. 1991. Decorated Mould-Blown Glass Tablewares in the First century AD. In M. Newby & K. Painter (eds.) Roman Glass: Two Centuries of Art and Invention. pp. 56–75. The Society of Antiquaries of London: London ISBN 0854312552
12.^ a b c d e f g h i Tatton-Brown, V. 1991. The Roman Empire. In H. Tait (ed.) Five Thousand Years of Glass. pp.62–97. British Museum Press: London ISBN 0812218884
13.^ a b c Wright, K. 2000. Leaf Beakers and Roman Mould-blown Glass Production in the First Century AD. In Journal of Glass Studies 42: 61–82.
14.^ Taylor, M. & D. Hill 1998. Making Roman Glass Today. In The Colchester Archaeologist 11
15.^ Cuneaz, G. 2003. Introduction. In R.B. Mentasti, R. Mollo, P. Framarin, M. Sciaccaluga & A. Geotti (eds.) Glass Through Time: history and technique of glassmaking from the ancient world to the present. pp. 11–30. Skira Editore: Milan ISBN 9788884913456
17.^ Avigad, N 1983. Discovering Jerusalem. Nashville. ISBN 0840752997
18.^ Israeli, Y. 1991. The Invention of Blowing. In M. Newby & K. Painter (eds.) Roman Glass: Two Centuries of Art and Invention. pp. 46–55. The Society of Antiquaries of London: London ISBN 0854312552
19.^ a b c Vose, R.H. 1989. Glass. Collins Archaeology: London. ISBN 0852237146
20.^ Isings, C. 1957. Roman Glass: from dated finds. Archaeologica Traiectina. J.B. Wolters: Groningen.
21.^ Hőricht, L.A.S. 1991. Syrian Elements among the Glass from Pompeii. In M. Newby & K. Painter (eds.) Roman Glass: two centuries of art and invention. pp. 76–85. The Society of Antiquaries of London: London ISBN 0854312552
22.^ Coles, R.A. 1983. The Oxyrhynchus Papyri 50. Egypt Exploration Society for the British Academy: London.
23.^ Grose, D.F. 1982. The Hellenistic and Early Roman Glass from Morgantina (Serra Orlando), Sicily. In Journal of Glass Studies 24: 20–29.
24.^ a b c Allen, D. 1998. Roman Glass in Britain. Shire Archaeology No. 76. CTT Printing Series Ltd.: Pembrokeshire.
25.^ Price, J. 2000. Roman Glass Production in Western Europe. In M-D Nenna (ed.) La Route Du Verre: ateliers primaries et secondaires du second millenaire av. J-C au Moyen Age. pp. 123–124. Maison de l’Orient Mediterranean: Paris
26.^ Lazar, I. 2006. Glass finds in Slovenia and neighbouring areas. In Journal of Roman Archaeology 19: 299–342.
27.^ Tatton-Brown, V. 1991. Early Medieval Europe AD 400 – 1066. In H. Tait (ed.) Five Thousand Years of Glass. pp. 98–111. British Museum Press: London. ISBN 0812218884
28.^ a b c Vose, R.H. 1989. From Dark Ages to the Fall of Constantinople. In D. Klein & W. Lloyd (eds.) The History of Glass. pp. 39–66. Macdonald & Co. (Publishers) Ltd.: ISBN 085613516X
29.^ a b Tait, H. 1994. Europe from the Middle Ages to Industrial Revolution. In H. Tait (ed.) Five Thousand Years of Glass. pp. 145–187. British Museum Press: London ISBN 0812218884
30.^ Wood, P. 1989. The Tradition from Medieval to Renaissance. In D. Klein & W. Lloyd (eds.) The History of Glass. pp. 67–92. Macdonald & Co. (Publishers) Ltd.: ISBN 085613516X
Sorry for the dense chunk of text. It's likely more readable at its source.Source(s): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass_blowing
- HSINLv 610 years ago
I thought glass was an amorphous solid...
This is also the answer I've gotten from everything I've read and from my step-father who knows a bit about such things, lol
There's this myth that glass flows downward over time, it's false of course, though we did have it taught to us in 7th grade.
The problem is, it' disregards the old processes of making windows (blah, blah, blah "the bottom is thicker on purpose")...
and of course ancient glass works are not deformed...
Here is a nice example:
The thing is, arguments can still be made... which is why people are still asking
- PossumLv 710 years ago
I'm pretty sure that we learned in my Colonial American Cultures class that glass is really an extremely slow-moving (viscous) liquid. 200 year-old windows are thicker at the bottom of the pane than at the top, which shows that the glass is flowing downward due to gravity.
- ScorpioLv 710 years ago
Glass is an amorphous solid
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- 10 years ago
glass, like in windows, is a solid because the molecules stay in place and just vibrate.
- ToonyLv 510 years ago
Well it has two states of matter, so of course its both depending on which state it is in at the time given :P