有關Procter & Gamble 的論文
Procter And Gamble In Japan
Procter & Gamble (P&G), the large U.S. consumer products company, has a well-earned reputation as one of the world’s best marketers. P&G manufactures and markets more than 200 products that it sells in 130 countries around the world. Along with Unilever, P&G is a dominant global force in laundry detergents, cleaning products, personal care products, and pet food products. P&G expanded abroad after World War II by exporting its products, brands, and marketing policies to Western Europe, initially with considerable success. Over the next 30 years, this policy of developing new products and marketing strategies in the United States and then transferring them to other countries became entrenched. P&G’s adaptation of marketing policies to accommodate country differences was minimal. In general, products were developed in the United States, manufactured locally, and sold using a marketing message created in Cincinnati.
The first signs that this policy was no longer effective emerged in the 1970’s, when P&G suffered a number of major setbacks in Japan, by 1985, after 13 years in Japan; P&G was still losing $40 million a year. It had introduced disposable diapers in Japan and at one time had commanded an 80 percent share of the market, but by the early 1980’s it held a miserable 8 percent. Three large Japanese consumer products companies were dominating the market. P&G’s diapers, developed in the United States, were too bulky for the tastes of Japanese consumers. Kao, a Japanese company, had developed a line of trim-fit diapers that appealed more to Japanese tastes. Kao introduced its product with a marketing blitz and was quickly rewarded with a 30 percent share of the market. P&G realized it would have to modify its diapers if it was to compete in Japan, It did, and the company how has a 30 percent share of the Japanese market. Plus, P&G’s trim-fit diapers have become a best –seller in the...
有人有這段原文的後半段嗎? 只要原文就可以不用翻譯~ 感謝^^
- ΨετμουνΤLv 79 years agoFavorite Answer
此段文章出現在 Charles W.L. Hill 的著作 International Business: Competing in the Global Marketplace，第17章。
P&G had a similar experience in marketing education in the Japanese laundry detergent market. In the early 1980s, P&G introduced its Cheer laundry detergent in Japan. Developed in the United States, Cheer was promoted in Japan with the US marketing message--Cheer works in all temperatures and produces lots of rich suds. But many Japanese consumers wash their clothes in cold water, which made the claim of working in all temperatures irrelevant. Also, many Japanese add fabric softeners to their water, which reduces detergents' sudsing action, so Cheer did not suds up as advertised. After a disastrous launch, P&G knew it had to adapt its marketing message. Cheer is now promoted as a product that works effectively in cold water with fabric softeners added, and it is one of P&G's bestselling products in Japan.P&G's experience with disposable diapers and laundry detergents in Japan forced the company to rethink its product development and marketing philosophy. The company now admits that its US-centered way of doing business no longer works. Since the late 1980s, P&G has been delegating more responsibility for new-product development and marketing to its major subsidiaries in Japan and Europe. The company is more responsive to local differences in consumer tastes and preferences and more willing to admit that good new products can be developed outside the United States.
Voyevodins' Library - International Business: Competing in the Global Marketplace