It depends on which area you work in.
When you construct structures for prevention of waste leakage and such, you will definitely need to calculate the right size of the structures, how long say structures will last, rate at which deterioration occurs in the area it is built in...., so on and so for.
Even the mass planting of trees/plants and such require you to calculate the growth rate of the plants, the distance required between each tree/plant, the distance between other buildings or structures with respect to the trees/plants.
When we talk about distance, we do not just talk about length. We talk about angles, displacement, so on and so for.