? asked in Education & ReferenceHomework Help · 9 years ago

Help on a student answer guide for American Labor: 1830 - Present?

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  • 9 years ago
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    You have a lot of questions there for a measly 10 points but i can help with the information and it's source, but you will have to do some Reading, thinking and understanding, But this is where it came from :- http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1678.html

    Labor, 1830s-Present

    The beginnings of the American labor movement

    Recognition of the needs of the American laborer began in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The first child labor law (1836) was passed, whereby employment of children under the age of 15 was forbidden in incorporated factories, unless they had attended school for three months the prior year of their employment. The commonwealth's chief justice, Lemuel Shaw, ruled in the case of Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842), that a trade union was lawful and that its members were not collectively responsible for the illegal acts committed by individuals. Shaw also ruled that a strike for a closed shop was legal.

    As farmers' sons, discharged soldiers, and a new wave of immigrants hit the industrialized cities in America, new labor problems arose. Newly educated women, schooled by one of the seven new women's colleges or private boarding schools between 1861 and 1880, joined the overabundance of workers in practically every occupation (except for stevedoring and the building trades) and in nearly every profession (except for the police and the ministry).

    The government's willingness to intervene in dealing with poor working conditions in industrialized cities was greatly affected by the principles of laissez faire, which stated that “the functions of the state should be limited to internal police and foreign protection — no public education, no limitation of hours of labor, no welfare legislation.” Spencer, who published Social Statistics in 1865, also included the Darwinian principle of survival of the fittest to his dog-eat-dog ideology. Its effects included delays in factory inspections, passing laws limiting the number of hours worked, and laws prohibiting “sweatshops,” where families lived and worked in one-room “homes.”

    As the economy improved over the next few years, American labor took another direction: toward labor organizing. Several unions came into being, including the Order of the Knights of Labor. Founded in 1869, the Knights' goal was to to increase negotiating powers by unionizing all American workers.

    The Knights of Labor, under the leadership of Pennsylvania machinist Terence V. Powderly, were essentially responsible for the Alien Contract Labor Law of 1885, which prohibited laborers immigrating to America who had a contract to perform work. Since the law contained no enforcement provisions, such as inspections or deportation, the States were unable to enforce it.

    Violence during the 1870s and '80s

    Driven by wage cuts and poor working conditions, violent outbreaks of strikes and a long series of battles occurred all over the country during the 1870s. In 1877, around the coal mining region of Mauch Chunk and Pottsville, Pennsylvania, a secret miners' association called the Molly Maguires, mostly comprising Irish Catholics, burned buildings, controlled county officials, and murdered bosses and supervisors who offended them. Finally, the murderers were apprehended and brought to trial. The hanging of 10 of those men in 1877, effectively broke up the “Mollies.”

    Also in 1877, unorganized railroad workers struck because of a 10 percent wage cut, the second cut since the Panic of 1873. They brought to a screeching halt four Eastern rail trunk lines, which caused turmoil in every industrial center. In Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Martinsburg, West Virginia; and Chicago, Illinois; the Great Strike of 1877 sparked battles between militia and the crowds. Only after federal soldiers were brought in, was ordered restored.

    By 1886, membership in the Knights of Labor had swollen to 700,000 workers and stood as a champion for the unskilled laborer. Unlike other labor unions, the Knights of Labor encouraged blacks to join, so that by 1886, approximately 60,000 blacks had become members.

    Blacks had been deemed unfit for manufacturing work, according to a “study” published by the Manufacturers Record of Baltimore in 1893. Such conclusions made it difficult for blacks to enter the industrial labor market.

    AND IT GO'S ON AND ON..............

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  • Anonymous
    4 years ago

    I am not sure it is part of it as kids have always found ways to get around homework, this may just make it a little easier. However, places like this do show the lack of education that the kids have today. It is disgusting! I do not agree that most of what is taught to the kids is wrong. There are valuable skills which need to be learned even if they are not going to use them. If nothing else in a negative way it can give kids direction. Reading, writing and math will always be necessary. For me history is also very important, as well as, some language. I agree research skills are very important, but in order to do research you have to read, write, and spell. From what I see here those skills are almost universally missing

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