Resistors: Fixed, Rheostat, Potentiometer, Tapped, Thermistor, Photoresistor
Capacitors: Non-polarized, Polarized, Variable
Diode: Diode,Schotty,Shockley, Constant current, Zener, Light-emitting, Photo, Step recovery, Tunnel, Varactor, Pin, and Vacuum tube
Thyristors (A form of diode): Shockley, Diac, Silicon Control Rectifier (SCR), LASCR,TRIAC, Opto-TRIAC, SCS, GCS, GTO, and UJT
Transistors (Bipolar): NPN, PNP, Phototransistor, Dual-emitter NPN, Dual-emitter PNP, Darlington, Sziklai
Transistors (JFET): N-channel, P-channel
Transistors (MOSFET): N-channel depletion, P-channel depletion, N-channel enhancement,P-channel enhancement
Transistors (Hybrid): IGBT (NPN), IGBT (PNP), IGBT (N-channel), IGBT (P-channel)
Transformers: Iron core, Air Core, Center Tapped, 3 and 4 phase, Step-up/ step-down, Variac, Saturable reactor, and Synchro
Relay: Normally open/ closed, Electromechanical coil, Electronic Coil
Heat Sink: Inactive (without a fan), Active (with a fan), Junction-to-case, Case-to-sink, Sink-to-ambient
I hope this helped.
Industrial Electronics (4th Edition, Humphries)
Electronics Principles (5th Edition, Malvino)
Electronics Principles and Applications (6th Edition, Schuler)
These are just some of the textbooks that I used in college.