The term stock market, as the name connotes, is a place where you can market or trade a company's stock, which the corporation issues through shares in order to raise capital. Of course, capital is the cost that a company incurs in relation to producing its products and services.
The people who buy these shares are the shareholders, and the term can refer to an individual or an organization.
The term stock market can also apply to all the stocks available for trading (as well as other securities), for example, when used in terms like "the stock market performed well today."
The stock market involves the trading of bonds, which is a debt security that stipulates that the issuer of the bonds holds the holders a debt. It is exactly like a loan, only that it is in the form of a security. These bonds are traded over-the-counter, which means they are traded directly between two parties. Thisis opposed to exchange trading or the trading that occurs on stock exchanges or future exchanges.