The flag of Morocco ( Arabic: علم المغرب) is made of a red field with a black-bordered green interwoven star. Red has considerable historic significance in Morocco, proclaiming the descent of the royal family from the Prophet Muhammad via Fatima, the wife of Ali, the fourth Caliph. Red is also the color that was used by the Sherifs of Mecca and the Imams of Yemen. From the 17th century on, when Morocco was ruled by the Alaouite Dynasty, the flags of the country were plain red. In 1915, during the reign of Mulay Yusuf, the green interlaced pentangle was added to the national flag, used as a symbol in occult law for centuries. While Morocco was under French and Spanish control, the red flag with the seal in the center remained in use- but only inland. Its use at sea was prohibited. When independence was restored in 1956, it once again became the national flag.
Rachid Sbihi, Moroccan historian and numismatic specialist, says that the decision taken then was to keep the red-only flag as a symbol for the Royal Makhzen, while the national flag would bear a 6-pointed green star in its center. It would stay like this until the royal Dahir of 1915 changed the 6-pointed star to a 5-pointed star.
The 6-pointed star used in the Moroccan flag is also known as the Seal of Solomon (Sulaïman in Arabic) or the Star of David. However, it was not chosen to be on the Moroccan flag for that reason, since the 6-pointed star is a symbol of life, wisdom and good health common to all three major monotheistic religions. The Seal of Solomon was also stamped on the 100 and 200 francs coins as well as on some Makhzen stamps until 1954.
According to Rachid Sbihi, it seems that the change of stars was done by General Hubert Lyautey when getting ready to send Moroccan troops to fight during World War I. Rachid Sbihi points out that reasons why General Lyautey would do such a thing were neither clear nor valid. The Moroccan people however, were given another explanation that could be the right one: the new star was best adapted to the country's religion and faith since the 5 branches could symbolize the 5 pillars of Islam. The Moroccan flag is also used by Moorish-Americans of the Moorish Science Temple of America.
The new flag however would only be displayed flush on the ground until Morocco's independence in 1956.
On May 08, 2010, a Moroccan flag with a size of 60,409.78 meters squared was certified by the Guinness Book of World Records as the largest flag draped ever, its weight was 20 tones, and it was set in Dakhla, a city in the disputed territory of Western Sahara.
The flag of Mauritania is the common name for the national flag of Mauritania in north-west Africa. The flag was adopted on April 1, 1959. It was introduced under the instructions of Moktar Ould Daddah, and the subsequent constitution of 22 March 1959.
The colors of green and gold are considered Pan-African colors. Green is also used to symbolize Islam, and the gold for the sands of the Sahara desert. The crescent and star are symbols of Islam, which is the major religion in the nation. Some writers have also speculated that green symbolises a bright future, and growth. There is no official specification or construction sheet for the exact relative measurements of the star and crescent, although the flag's measurements are 2:3.
The design acts as the national flag of Mauritania, and is also used in circular form as an aircraft roundel.
The current constitution of 12 July 1991 specifies that:
The national emblem is a flag with a crescent and a gold star on a green ground
—12 July 1991, Constitution of Mauritania
Unlike the seal, the exact flag is specified, not merely the right for a law to specify it at some later date. However, the flag has its official basis in the earlier constitution of 22 March 1959; no changes were made after the country's declaration of independence in 1960.