First, you're getting lots of "bad things" in your lungs and digestive system all the time from all kinds of things we use in industrialized societies. In general, it's the *lifetime load* of those things that matters, and also whether the person has a particular genetic susceptibility to certain diseases--including cancers. (Working in factories where one is exposed to a lot of those substances is the strongest concern.)
So the bottom line is that a few particles from even a problem non-stick surface would really amount to very little for one's lifetime load.
However, the jury is still out on non-stick surfaces, and particularly those made by certain manufacturers and materials (like the brand "Teflon").
It's pretty much agreed (in the scientific community and elsewhere) that it's best not to heat those coatings above about 400 degrees F (because they can release other "bad" things), and best not to use abrasive implements (metal, etc) or cleaning materials because they will more quickly make the coating begin to come off (and to throw the pots/pans away once that begins happening).
But no one really knows how much harm even those things will make, or whether it takes a lot more, etc, although those associated in some way with the manufacturers will put out "proof" that they're not a problem, and others will put out "proof" that they're scary and horrible. It takes a lot of good research to figure out who's actually behind the claims both ways, and how rigidly and honestly the "science" was done or the results given.
(And btw, no one has yet developed a non-stick coating/material that won't begin to erode and come off after awhile...some will do it pretty fast though.)
And yes, your body can "filter" out some toxins and other bad things, but for some things it's unable to.
Personally, I avoid non-stick coatings in general--well, except for one 8" omelet pan for making all kinds of egg things because there really isn't a good substitute unless I want to use a lot of oil/fat instead to keep them from sticking, which I don't.
I avoid them for several reasons... because I'm concerned about the possible effects and the cost of replacing constantly, and also because those coatings don't allow meats to "brown" well, and the "fond" or little dark bits to form on the bottom of the pan from sauteing meats, onions, etc. (which contribute so much to taste for pan sauces, etc).