Here are a few ways:
1. Tariffs (which is how most of the government's income was raised before 1916).
2. Leases and Mining Rights (right now we give these away at pennies on the dollar. If reasonable prices were were charged for them, a lot could be brought in).
3. Fees --- Agencies who must do work for specific companies are authorized to charge fees. I pay a few hundred dollars every time I file a patent. But the work that USPTO does costs many thousands. Raising fees, for all fee charging agencies would mostly hit big corporations, not inventors like me.
4. Fines -- 10,000 serious felonies are done on Wall Street every day. About 5 result in charges. About 1 gets a conviction. The guilty perp does 6 mos probation, pays $250,000 in fines, and walks off laughing his *ss of with $50 million. I say fine him $50 million. Let him walk off with nothing.
5. Foreclosures -- Since the government bought up all that bad paper it owns a lot of those distressed properties. OK foreclose, and sell them off at whatever the market will bring. If this means low prices, so low in fact that the original owner can now afford to buy the property for all cash, then so be it. Clear all the toxic mess off the government's books.
6. Forfeitures -- Especially for drug kingpins and RICO kingpins. Just take all their houses, cars, boats, diamonds, paintings, and land.
7. Progressive income taxation so people earning over $1 million per year pay 50%, and people over $10 million pay 95%. This resluts in a less obscene society, and a more stable one.
8. Tax breaks for middle class earned income, let's try to get the tax rate down to around 15% to 25%.
9. Deep tax cuts for all earners with real genuine authentic jobs who earn less than $25K/year. Let's aim for a tax rate of 2% to 5%, and 0% if you're under $15K/year.
10. Tax all capital gains as ordinary income, forget about a special rate if you make money with money, just pay like everybody else in your income category. Sitting on your duff is no great achievement, going out and showing up for work is no crime. We live in upside-down land on this subject. Probably thanks to the Koch Brothers (they are not the source of all evil lunacy, but a lot of it).
Short Answer: Income taxes are one channel, there are at least 10 others. Minds that are talented with imagination are wide angled. They see the Big Picture. They don't just proceed while staring at their shoes. Many years ago there were such minds in America. Now it's Dunce-Inane and the woods have come to us.
Also hold an MBA/JD Hons from a major B school.