What was the investiture controversy?
What was the investiture controversy? In the
conflict between Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV, and between Thomas
Becket and King Henry II, who had the best weapons and what was the outcome
of each dispute? Where did ultimate power in medieval society rest? Why?
- PandoraLv 59 years agoFavorite Answer
The Investiture Controversy, Investiture Contest or War of Investiture was the most significant conflict between Church and state in medieval Europe. In the 11th and 12th centuries, a series of popes challenged the authority of European monarchies over control of appointments, or investitures, of church officials such as bishops and abbots. Although the principal conflict began in 1075 between Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, a brief but significant struggle over investiture also occurred between Henry I of England and the papacy of Paschal II in the years 1103 to 1107, and the issue played a minor role in the struggles between church and state in France as well. The entire controversy was finally resolved by the Concordat of Worms in 1122.
By undercutting the Imperial power established by the Salian emperors, the controversy led to nearly 50 years of civil war in Germany, and the triumph of the great dukes and abbots, until Imperial power was reestablished under the Hohenstaufen dynasty.
- ammianusLv 79 years ago
The Investiture Controversy was a conflict between the Papacy and European monarchs,principally the Holy Roman Emperors, in the 11th and 12th centuries. Essentially,the struggle was over who had ultimate power, the Pope or the monarch, but it centred on the investiture,or appointment, of clerical officials in a given realm, and whether it was the monarch of that realm or the Pope who had the ultimate authority to make such appointments.
The outcome in the 2 examples you mention was that the Popes came out on top, as they had the best weapon -Excommunication. The monarchs could use military force,but as anybody (including a king or emperor) who had been excommunicated could be disobeyed by their subjects,this was always a risky option.