What was the Phung Nguyen culture?
- connieLv 79 years agoFavorite Answer
The Phung Nguyen Culture (4,000 years ago) was discovered in 1959 mainly in some midland and plain provinces in North Vietnam (Phu Tho, Vinh Phuc, Ha Tay, Bac Ninh and Hanoi).
Phung Nguyen is the first culture of the Bronze Age in Vietnam. During this period, people invented the metallurgical technique to produce instruments and weapons which helped them more effectively in conquering the nature and improving their life. The vestiges of this culture are almost the open-air settlement sites scattered at the high plain, near the springs and streams, in the river basins and high hills and mounds in the plains and coasts. A large number of artifacts of various materials and categories show that the economy of this period more developed than the previous time, especially in agriculture and husbandry, with the popularization of fishing and hunting tools (arrows, spearheads, net-sinkers). Obviously, hunting and gathering still played an important role in the then economic life.
- Stone manufacture: The rich collection of production tools, both finished and semifinished, discovered at a jewelry manipulating workshop in Trang Kenh (Hai Phong), proves that the stone manufacturing skills reached their peak. Most of stone tools and jewelry are smoothed, small but very elaborate, including chisels, drill-bits, saw blades, earrings, rings, bracelets, bead-rings. Especially, there is the stone figurine of a man recovered in Van Dien (Hanoi), which is imbued with prosperous elements of agricultural dwellers.
- Ceramic production is a handicraft developed strongly during this period. The majority of ceramic products were made by hand with the potter’s wheel, so they are well proportioned and good-looking. The Phung Nguyen people could mix sand or other impurities with clay to prevent ceramic articles from deformation when being dried or baked at a high temperature. The decorative patterns and motifs are quite rich (lines, scratches, incised design with letter S pattern, soft bands of symmetrical triangles). Small clay spindle whorls and other stone instruments prove that thread spinning, cloth weaving and carpentry were developed.
- Bronze casting: No bronze working tools but some lumps of brass and patina were found at some archaeological sites, evidencing that the Phung Nguyen people knew about refining bronze. These are the bronze alloys of copper, tin and lead.
The above is a very good summary of the following link with more extensive findings: