It appears to me that you have a specific hatred for the taking of human life. Maybe someone close to you has had their life taken, and you want to blame someone. That is natural, but a mistake to blame God. THIS was the mistake Job made. He thought that it was God contending with him. In reality it was Satan. Satan is a murderer, not God. Merely allowing something to happen does not make one the cause.
The reason for Job's suffering was because Satan said, first, that Job was a God-fearing man because God bribed him. That was not the case. Then Satan said that a man's integrity comes with a price, and that if life were on the line, man would curse God to his face.
God already knew Job was a man of outstanding faith and integrity, so he allowed Satan to try and prove his point. He did warn Satan NOT to kill Job. Notice, though, when all was said and done, God gave Job an additional 140 years, 10 more children, and increased his wealth. Additionally, in the earthly resurrection Job will receive back to him all 20 of his children, and those of his servants that Satan killed.
God NEVER intended on his human creation to die. When Adam disobeyed God, Adam introduced sin and its end result, death, into the human family. The fact that our cells continue to regenerate and renew themselves allude to the way we were created. To live, not to die.
Incidentally, Job was not given a new wife, as his wife never died, never left him. She to benefitted from Job successfully keeping his integrity. You appear to be quite a thorough student of history. As such, you'd know that when a man is blessed, or is otherwise successful in an undertaking, his whole family benefits. In Job's wife's case she was also given the privilege of having more children, which, in those days was an honor, the privilege of having her family's wealth restored, and the privilege of having her husband's health restored.
As Job suffered, she suffered. She watched as her husband dealt with a painful sickness. She was also deeply hurt, because she did not know why he was suffering. She lost ten of her children. Not only that she lost seven and a half years of her life, plus (nine months times ten children, plus the time it takes to wean them). The loss of her children was an even greater loss to her, than it was to Job. She also lost whatever wealth her husband accumulated. So, she may NOT have been in the wrong telling her husband, the man she loved and had 10 children with, to 'curse God and die'. What loving wife, in her right mind, would want to see the man she loves suffer so cruelly? She may have said what she said so that her husband would no longer have to suffer.
AND even when he was going through it, he acknowledged that he would not even consider looking at another woman (Job 31:1). Not too many men, today, can echo those words.
If men today suffered like Job did, how many of our 'civilized' 21st century equals would even bother to see us through it?