how does a pure electric car work?
- 1 decade agoFavorite Answer
An electric car usually has an electric motor in it. (There are concepts where a linear motor is in the roadway) but there are many ways that the electricity can be supplied to power the vehicle:
Electric power can be:
A--Made on the vehicle as in solar cars(1), in fuel cells as in a FCEV(2), or with another engine in a series hybrid like the Volt and diesel/electric locomotive engines.
B--stored on the vehicle in chemical batteries (lots of present literature,) ultracapacitors, and flywheels (the last two are proven designs in working buses)3
C--transmitted to the vehicle while it is moving as in trains, trams, subways by a third rail or overhead wires; and the newer online electric vehicle OLEV using an induction cable buried in the roadway.4
The "purest" electric vehicles are in category C because there is no extra hardware to make or store the electricity. It is also one of the oldest and cheapest technology that was used for years in electric train sets and in some places the full sized variety. But the term has been used recently to mean that the vehicle is a BEV and not a hybrid.
A1 Solar cars have solar cells to gather the sun's energy and primarily power the vehicle. They may have small back up battery. The technology has improved so that vehicles can now exceed posted speed limits in the classic Australian solar road race: http://electric-vehicles-cars-bikes.blogspot.com/2...
A2 FCEV are just electric cars but the electricity is made using a fuel cell. This makes the vehicle energy supply, a material added to the vehicle and is more like the familiar gasoline. These vehicles are also quite expensive. In this category the series hybrid is cheapest.
B1 Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) are mobile but must be charged. The batteries may be up to 1/2 the cost of the vehicle but this is changing. Batteries power an electric motor which drives the car. Electronics include an external battery charger, a BMS (battery management system) to watch battery condition and a motor controller to facilitate regenerative braking and maximum performance from the motor.
B2&3 Ultracapacitors are used to compliment or replace batteries. Ultracapacitors and flywheels are particularly useful in vehicles that frequently start and stop like buses and delivery vehicles. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LYL6NyU1g3k
Ultracapacitors have an advantage of fewer moving parts. Cost is dropping while power density is increasing.
C3 OLEV is the latest innovation in transmitting power to an electric vehicle. Induction is the wireless transfer of electric power. It requires close contact and there is some power loss. The EV1 electric car used an induction paddle charger for a safe transfer of power to the batteries and wireless chargers are becoming more common for charging battery devices. http://www.hybridautoreview.net/korean-researchers... http://www.evworld.com/article.cfm?storyid=821
Electric vehicles have full torque from 0 RPM and may not require a transmission like a petrol vehicle. They have only about 5 moving parts in the drivetrain. They are over 90% efficient, cool, quiet and relatively maintenance free and produce no exhaust emissions allowing indoor operation. An electrified roadway system would be cheaper but require a common standard and government action similar to highway projects. Battery and ultracapacitor capacity is increasing rapidly as they get cheaper. Electric vehicles are a technology with a great deal of potential.
- TechnobuffLv 71 decade ago
A bank of rechargeable batteries supplies electric motor(s) via a control system.
Initially, the batteries are charged from the AC mains.
When the car descends hills, is braked or is slowing down with the "throttle" closed, the electric motor(s) can generate DC power, and partially recharge the batteries.
The greater part of the battery charge is still from the AC mains. When finished driving, the car is reconnected for charging.
The system works fairly well, but whether there is any long- term benefit to running electric cars is debatable. Initial cost, battery replacement costs, costs of recycling batteries, etc., and cost to environment may mean comparatively little gain over gasoline powered cars.
- Anonymous1 decade ago
You usually plug the battery into a wall or something.
An electric car doesn't really do much, you still have to burn coal to create the electricity.
- disilvestroLv 44 years ago
Ford had a organic battery pushed p.c.. up on the industry some years lower back. Wasn't for the main public i think, in basic terms for a super organisation with in dwelling house needs, mutually with factors in a production facility, or affordable transportation on super sites. It in basic terms had fairly a sort 60 plus miles, and grew to become into very high priced, even used they get approximately 30,000 plus for one in stable shape. Even ford mentioned the batteries in it may in basic terms final prehaps 10 years or much less... till vehicle makers step up and characteristic call for for a organic battery vehicle they gained't make a super attempt to develop.