Question about Geothermal Heating and Cooling? 10 POINTS!?

I understand that it is essentially a loop in which a refrigerant travels around through the Earth's interior either cooling or heating and in the end expending that temperature into a home or building..as we know, technology is always progressing and ways of becoming more innovative and efficient are always... show more I understand that it is essentially a loop in which a refrigerant travels around through the Earth's interior either cooling or heating and in the end expending that temperature into a home or building..as we know, technology is always progressing and ways of becoming more innovative and efficient are always just around the corner...so my question is...

1.) What are some efforts or discoveries that increase the efficiency of the energy conversion in the process of Geothermal heating and cooling?

So from what I interpret, are there any new ways to make the refrigerant travel faster...different types of refrigerant that are more efficient...a compressor that is able to get the job done more efficiently...etc...

I had an idea though, I heard different types of refrigerants can be used such as air, water...etc???
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