Taurine - 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid
L-Carnitine - 3-hydroxy-4-(trimethylazaniumyl)butanoat...
Panax Ginseng - the botanical name for the Asian Ginseng plant
Taurine is a substance that has a detoxifying effect on working muscles and it may improve athletic performance. It has no known harmful effects but there are questions about it. It seems to be safe up to 3 grams (3000 milligrammes) a day and after that it is thought that the body simply throws the rest away. Nevertheless there is concern over long term large usage.
There is an analogy with vitamin C. Conventional wisdom has it that more than the required dietary amount is simply excreted. Nevertheless taking massive doses seem to help clear up colds. So maybe taking massive doses of Taurine may have an effect.
Carnitine is present in many foods and carnitine deficiency is a potential dietary problem. Although carnitine supplements are available (and approved by USA's FDA) it has no known beneficial medicinal effects. That is once you have enough to prevent deficiency diseases then any extra is useless. Carnitine is thought to be harmless.
Panax Ginseng is the traditional Asian Ginseng plant. Ginseng species are named Panax. Asian Ginseng is Panax Ginseng; American Ginseng is Panax quinquefolius and so on. Ginseng is credited with many properties many of them magical. You will see many products including shampoo, skin cream and even toothpaste with ginseng. It isn't harmful but then again there is no evidence that it is useful.
Sucrose, Glucose, Maltodextrin - sugar
Sorbic acid - Completely safe preservative
Benzoic acid - Another preservative. Virtually safe but it can generate benzene when mixed with vitamin C. So don't dissolve soluble vitamin C in Monster Energy.
Niacinamide - a form of vitamin B3 - good
Sodium Chloride - salt - enough to taste not enough to harm
Glucuronolactone - Made by the liver from glucose, it has a (unwarranted) reputation for being beneficial and it is not harmful.
Inositol - This is a carbohydrate - similar to a tasteless sugar - 4 calories per gram but no other effects
Guarana seed - natural source of caffeine
Pyridoxine - Vitamin B6
Sucralose - safe artificial sweetener
Riboflavin - Vitamin B2 - yellow food colour
Cyanocobalamin - Vitamin B12 - some people are allergic to this
Then there is the final ingredient, Caffeine. The good and bad effects of Caffeine have been rehearsed so often that there is little point in going through it here. Suffice to say that whilst Caffeine is not harmless it isn't too bad for someone who isn't already sick. Caffeine is a potent and effective stimulant.
Going through the ingredients there important ones are Sugar and Caffeine - Energy and stimulant.
Everything else is there just to make up the recipe.
Some make the drink palatable - carbonated water, the sweetener etc.
Some are preservatives - Sorbic acid etc.
Some sound good without doing anything - Ginseng, Taurine etc.
Some are vitamins
Basically nothing there to worry about.