I haven't read Dante's Inferno but I have read Fahrenheit 451.
Dante's Inferno - Inferno is italian for hell. A man, Dante, travels through all the levels/circles of Hell each one basically representing a sin - 1st circle is for the good but unbaptised people and is known as limbo (heard of it?), 2nd circle is lust, 3rd is gluttony, 4th is for people who don't share or value possessions, 5th is wrath and sullenness, 6th circle is for people who don't follow the church (people of other religions), 7th is for violence (including against property, people, yourself and God), 8th circle is for fraud and the 9th is for betrayal.
Everyones punishment is a "contrapasso", basically poetic justice. For example, fortune-tellers have to walk forward with there head on backwards so they can't see what's ahead because they tried to look ahead to the future in life. Pretty cruel, huh?
Fahrenheit 451 - this guy is a fire man meaning he burns books for a living. In that society, knowledge is evil and you can do whatever the hell you want (except anything intellectual). People just party, kill, watch tele and never actually do anything. The guy (forgot his name - not really important), starts questioning the system and rebels. You should definitely read this, by the way. It's awesome and I don't want to spoil it.
They both described hells. A world where learning, knowledge, and curiosity is banned is more of a hell than the one described by Dante. Also, they are both caused by the people - in Dante's Inferno, people sin to go there, and in Fahrenheit 451, the Hell is actually self-imposed and the majority of the people want it.
Fahrenheit 451 is what we call a distopian novel. It's the opposite of utopia and is basically a prediction of a hellish future. Bradbury is saying that if we all stop reading, learning and being curious, we will create our own Hell. It's a warning.
~Hope that helps!