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I need help with this worksheet on the world trade organization. I am not book smart, I cannot find the answer?

Literately, I cannot find these answers to save my life... I would be dead... I am not book smart and took the wrong decision to finish my senior year and graduate this year by taking online classes... I should have just gone to school again next year.

Part 1: The World Trade Organization

Use Site 1 to answer the following questions about the World Trade Organization:

1. How many member countries are in the WTO?

150

2. What is at the heart of the WTO system?

3. What is the stated purpose for WTO agreements?

4. Describe the WTO's trade main trade agreement, The General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT).

5. Briefly describe one important benefit of the WTO's trade agreements.

Part 2: Environmental Policy

One of the most common criticisms of the WTO concerns the environment. Using Sites 2 and 3, summarize this criticism and the WTO's response.

1. Criticism of the WTO's policies concerning the environment:

2. What specific examples does Site 2 give of the WTO's record on health and the environment?

3. How does the WTO respond to the charge that they are anti-environment or "anti-green?"

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  • 1 decade ago
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    Part 1: The World Trade Organization

    Use Site 1 to answer the following questions about the World Trade Organization:

    1.How many member countries are in the WTO?

    The WTO has nearly 150 members (153 countries as on 23 July 2008), accounting for over 97% of world trade. Around 30 others are negotiating membership.

    2.What is at the heart of the WTO system?

    At the heart of the WTO system – known as the multilateral trading system – are the WTO’s agreements, negotiated and signed by a large majority of the world’s trading nations, and ratified in their parliaments. These agreements are the legal ground-rules for international commerce. Essentially, they are contracts, guaranteeing member countries important trade rights. They also bind governments to keep their trade policies within agreed limits to everybody’s benefit.

    3.What is the stated purpose for WTO agreements?

    The WTO agreements serve as the WTO’s principal rules for trade in goods. The purpose of these agreements is to enable WTO members to operate in a non-discriminatory trading system by spelling out their rights and their obligations. Each country receives guarantees that its exports will be treated fairly and consistently in other countries’ markets. Each promises to do the same for imports into its own market. The system also gives developing countries some flexibility in implementing their commitments.

    4.Describe the WTO's trade main trade agreement, The General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT).

    General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was established in the wake of the Second World War. The multilateral trading system that was originally set up under GATT is well over 50 years old.

    From 1947 to 1994, GATT was the forum for negotiating lower customs duty rates and other trade barriers; the text of the General Agreement spelt out important rules, particularly non-discrimination.

    Since 1995, the updated GATT has become the WTO’s umbrella agreement for trade in goods. It has annexes dealing with specific sectors such as agriculture and textiles, and with specific issues such as state trading, product standards, subsidies and actions taken against dumping.

    The Uruguay Round created new rules for dealing with trade in services, relevant aspects of intellectual property, dispute settlement, and trade policy reviews. The complete set runs to some 30,000 pages consisting of about 30 agreements and separate commitments (called schedules) made by individual members in specific areas such as lower customs duty rates and services market-opening.

    5.Briefly describe one important benefit of the WTO's trade agreements.

    A system based on rules rather than power makes life easier for all

    Decisions in the WTO are made by consensus. The WTO agreements were negotiated by all members, were approved by consensus and were ratified in all members’ parliaments. The agreements apply to everyone. Rich and poor countries alike have an equal right to challenge each other in the WTO’s dispute settlement procedures.

    This makes life easier for all as smaller countries can enjoy some increased bargaining power without having to deal with each of the major economic powers individually and can perform more effectively by making use of the opportunities to form alliances and to pool resources.

    There are matching benefits for larger countries. The major economic powers can use the single forum of the WTO to negotiate with all or most of their trading partners at the same time avoiding complicated bilateral negotiations with dozens of countries simultaneously.

    The principle of non-discrimination built into the WTO agreements avoids that complexity. The fact that there is a single set of rules applying to all members greatly simplifies the entire trade regime. And these agreed rules give governments a clearer view of which trade policies are acceptable.

    Part 2: Environmental Policy

    One of the most common criticisms of the WTO concerns the environment. Using Sites 2 and 3, summarize this criticism and the WTO's response.

    1.Criticism of the WTO's policies concerning the environment:

    The WTO is being used by corporations to dismantle hard-won environmental protections, who call them barriers to trade. In 1993 the very first WTO panel ruled that a regulation of the US Clean Air Act, which required both domestic and foreign producers alike to produce cleaner gasoline, was illegal. Recently, the WTO declared illegal a provision of the Endangered Species Act that requires shrimp sold in the US to be caught with an inexpensive device that allows endangered sea turtles to escape. The WTO is currently negotiating an agreement that would eliminate tariffs on wood products, which would increase the demand for timber and escalate deforestation.

    Every ruling of the WTO proves that the institution is fundamentally flawed, designed to place corporate profits above the need to protect the environment. Every environmental law challenged under the WTO has been ruled to constitute an illegal barrier to trade. The WTO has shown that it has the power to go over the heads of democratically elected governments to decide what environmental rules have a 'valid' scientific basis.

    2.What specific examples does Site 2 give of the WTO's record on health and the environment?

    Examples quoted for of the WTO's record on health and the environment are:

    • A regulation of the Clean Air Act enabled the government to set a mandatory gasoline cleanliness standard for oil refiners. This law was applied equally to foreign and domestic refiners in the interest of minimizing air pollution. After the WTO ruled that the law violated GATT rules, the U.S. amended the rule, allowing in less clean gasoline.

    • The European Union (EU) has a public health ban on beef containing artificial hormones. In May 1997, a WTO panel declared that the European Union's ban on imports of beef produced with artificial growth hormones violated international trade rules and was consequently illegal. Not only was public health risk disregarded by the WTO under the cover of free trade, but so was the popular will.

    • The US Marine Mammal Act placed an embargo on tuna caught with dolphin-killing methods. It was denounced by Mexico as a protectionist trade weapon designed to close markets to foreign competitors. Rather than reform its practices, Mexico sued the US and succeeded in having the law declared illegal under GATT rules, under the pretext that the way in which a product is produced may not be used as grounds for trade discrimination.

    • The U.S. Endangered Species Act bans the import of shrimp from the U.S. or abroad caught without inexpensive devices that protect endangered sea turtles from slaughter from shrimp fishing nets. The WTO ruled against the U.S. law because it was an illegal encroachment on the sovereignty of other governments for the U.S. to set rules for what can enter the U.S. market.

    3.How does the WTO respond to the charge that they are anti-environment or "anti-green?"

    The preamble of the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization includes among its objectives, optimal use of the world’s resources, sustainable development and environmental protection.

    This is backed up in concrete terms by a range of provisions in the WTO’s rules. Among the most important are umbrella clauses (such as Article 20 of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) which allow countries to take actions to protect human, animal or plant life or health, and to conserve exhaustible natural resources.

    Beyond the broad principles, specific agreements on specific subjects also take environmental concerns into account. Subsidies are permitted for environmental protection. Environmental objectives are recognized specifically in the WTO agreements dealing with product standards, food safety, intellectual property protection, etc.

    In addition, the system and its rules can help countries allocate scarce resources more efficiently and less wastefully. For example, negotiations have led to reductions in industrial and agricultural subsidies, which in turn reduce wasteful over-production.

    A WTO ruling on a dispute about shrimp imports and the protection of sea turtles has reinforced these principles. WTO members can, should and do take measures to protect endangered species and to protect the environment in other ways, the report says. Another ruling upheld a ban on asbestos products on the grounds that WTO agreements give priority to health and safety over trade.

    What’s important in the WTO’s rules is that measures taken to protect the environment must not be unfair. For example, they must not discriminate. You cannot be lenient with your own producers and at the same time be strict with foreign goods and services. Nor can you discriminate between different trading partners. This point was also reinforced in the recent dispute ruling on shrimps and turtles, and an earlier one on gasoline.

    Also important is the fact that it’s not the WTO’s job to set the international rules for environmental protection. That’s the task of the environmental agencies and conventions.

    An overlap does exist between environmental agreements and the WTO — on trade actions (such as sanctions or other import restrictions) taken to enforce an agreement. So far there has been no conflict between the WTO’s agreements and the international environmental agreements.

  • Anonymous
    4 years ago

    World Trade Organisation Criticisms

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    5 years ago

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    4 years ago

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