how did railroad workers overcome their problems by this industrial expansion?

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  • 1 decade ago
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    It seemed like a lot of it had to do with organizing Labor Unions. Read:

    Labor Related Events of the Period

    1878

    Greenback Labor Party organized by a merger of the Workingmen's Party and Greenback Party.

    1879

    Knights of Labor elect Terrence Powderly as Grand Master Workmen.

    1881

    Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions, forerunner of the American Federation of Labor formed in Pittsburgh.

    1882

    First Labor Day celebration held in New York City.

    1883

    Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen organized.

    1884

    The Garfield Assembly, the first all female female local of the Knights of Labor, is created.

    Federal Bureau of Labor established as part of Department of the Interior.

    1885

    Immigration of laborers on contract is outlawed by the Foran Act.

    1885-6

    Period of greatest influence by Knights of Labor.

    1886

    In Columbus, Ohio, the American Federation of Labor is formed with Samuel Gompers as the first president.

    Violence erupts following a mysterious explosion at Haymarket Square in Chicago during a rally in support of the 8 hour day.

    1887

    Seven accused in the Haymarket explosion are sentenced to death. Five are later executed.

    1888

    First federal labor relations law passed but it only applies to rail companies .

    1890

    The AFL, at their annual convention, announce their support for women's suffrage.

    United Mine Workers of America formed.

    1892

    Homestead Strike in Pennsylvania. The Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel, and Tin Workers lose the fight over Carnegie Steel's attempt to break the union.

    1893

    Business depression.

    1894

    Strike by the American Railway Union against the Pullman Palace Car Company near Chicago is defeated by the use of injunctions and federal troops.

    1898

    Erdman Act passed which provides for mediation and voluntary arbitration on the railroads. This law replaces the 1888 law.

    1900

    International Ladies Garment Workers Union founded.

    1901

    United States Steel defeats the Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel and Tin Workers after a strike which lasted three months.

    United Textile Workers of America founded.

    1902

    Coal miners in Pennsylvania end a five month strike and agree to arbitration with a presidential committee.

    1903

    At the annual AFL convention, blue collar and middle class women unite to form the National Women's Trade Union League. T his organization is created to help organize women. Mary Morton Kehew is elected president while Jane Addams is elected vice-president.

    The Department of Commerce and Labor is formed.

    Mother Jones (Mary Harris Jones) leads the March of the Mill Chi ldren to President Roosevelt's home in New York. Many of the children are victims of industrial accidents.

    1905

    In Chicago, the Industrial Workers of the World founded.

    US Supreme Court in Lochner v. New York, declares a New York maximum hours law unconstitutional under the due process clause of the 14th Amendment.

    1906

    Upton Sinclair publishes The Jungle which exposes the unsafe and unclean aspects of the Chicago meatpacking industry.

    The International Typographical Union struck successfully for the 8 hour day which helped pave the way for shorter hours i n the printing trades.

    1908

    In Muller v. Oregon, the Supreme Court rules that female maximum hour laws are constitutional due to a woman's "physical structure and ...maternal functions."

    Section 10 of the Erdman Act which deals with "yellow dog" contracts and forbids a person being fired for belonging to a union was declared unconstitutional. (US v. Adair)

    1909

    Two month strike by the International Ladies Garment Workers' Union was settled by providing preferential union hiring, a board of grievances, and a board of arbitration.

    1911

    Supreme Court upheld an injunction ordering the AFL to eliminate the Bucks Stove and Range Co. from its unfair list and to cease to promote an unlawful boycott. (Gompers v. Bucks Stove and Range Co.)

    146 workers, mostly women, die in the Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire in New York City. This leads the to the establishment of the New York Factory Investigating Commission to monitor factory condition.

    1912

    Massachusetts adapts the first minimum wage law for women and minors.

    Textile strike led by the Industrial Workers of the World in Massachusetts wins wage increase.

    1913

    US Department of Labor established. Secretary of Labor given power to "act as a mediator and to appoint commissioners of conciliation in labor disputes."

    Source(s): www.kentlaw.edu/ilhs/curriculu.htm#6
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