Marge asked in 社會與文化語言 · 10 years ago

英文文法構句問題

各位好

有個題目是:

Michael Phelps, as ____________, fulfilled his goal of winning eight gold medals inthe 2008 Olympics.

答案是: had been expected

我的問題是: 主詞是 Michael Phelps, 動詞是 fulfilled

as 的詞性為何?

had been expected 也是動詞,

as 是連接詞嗎? 反正構句我不太懂, 感覺句子變兩個動詞, 但沒conj.

6 Answers

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  • 10 years ago
    Favorite Answer

    Michael Phelps, as had been expected, fulfilled his goal of winning eight gold medals inthe 2008 Olympics.

    這個as稱為準關代(quasi-relative pronoun), 先行詞是Michael Phelps同時也是關係子句的主詞, 關係子句的動詞是had been expected.

    as作為準關代的例句:

    As many children as came here were my father's pupils.

    = All the children that came here were my father's pupils.

    到這裏來的那麼多小孩全都是我爸爸的學生。

    Such as praise you to your face are likely to speak ill of you behind your back.

    = Those who praise you to your face are likely to speak ill of you behind your back.

    當你的面稱讚你的人可能會在你的背後說你的壞話。

    英文的準關代共計只有三個: as, than, but

    than例句:

    Children should not have more money than is needed.

    孩子們不應該有比所需要更多的錢。

    but例句:

    There is nothing in the world but is influenced by the sun.

    =There is nothing in the world that is not influenced by the sun.

    世上沒有不受太陽影響的東西。

    2010-05-27 14:17:29 補充:

    這個as稱為準關代(quasi-relative pronoun), 先行詞是Michael Phelps同時也是關係子句的主詞, 關係子句的動詞是had been expected.

    訂正:

    這個as稱為準關代(quasi-relative pronoun)同時也是關係子句的主詞, 先行詞是Michael Phelps, 關係子句的動詞是had been expected.

    2010-06-02 09:47:25 補充:

    雖然Kevin大師有不同意見的指教, 我仍認為版主的本句的"as had been expected"確實是準關代結構沒有錯誤. 準關代子句不像關代子句那樣只作形容詞子句用途, 而是形容詞子句與副詞子句都可擔任. 版主本句"as had been expected"就是副詞子句準關代結構的例子.

    2010-06-02 09:47:38 補充:

    我們知道, 副詞是可以在句中變換位置的, 依位置的不同, 它強調或修飾的對象也不同, 造成句意的細微差異.

    這個準關代子句是修飾何者呢?

    - 版主句子是插入式, 插入於主人翁之後, 準關代as子句就是修飾主詞Michael Phelps, 亦即as的先行詞是Michael Phelps.

    - Kevin把它移往句首並以逗號隔開, 那麼準關代as子句就是修飾整個主句, 亦即as的先行詞是整個子句.

    不知Kevin大師有無參透這一點?

    2010-06-02 11:54:26 補充:

    "菲爾普斯囊括八面金牌"

    所謂囊括, 是"全部"拿下的意思, 版主原句是贏得(winning), 沒說囊括, 而且8面金牌並不是游泳的全部項目, 更別提2008奧運總金牌數了, 譯為囊括並不適當..

    2010-06-02 15:53:11 補充:

    準關代 = 連接詞 + 先行詞或代名詞

    亦即: as had been expected = as Michael Phelps(或he) had been expected

    Kevin大師所說的[Michael Phelps had been expected]語意不完整, 這我同意;

    但前面有個as, 就沒有語意不完整的問題了, 這正是準關代的功能特色.

    一般副詞功能的子句, 絕不會有動詞而無主詞, 唯獨準關代子句例外, 因為準關代本身客串了主詞.

    2010-06-02 15:53:23 補充:

    e.g.

    Helen did not come to Taipie as I/you/they expected.←連接詞帶領的副詞子句

    Helen did not come to Taipie as she was expected. ←連接詞帶領的副詞子句

    Helen did not come to Taipie as was expected. ←準關代帶領的副詞子句

    以上三句都沒有語意不完整的問題, 因為都有as.

    Kevin您能了解我的意思嗎?

    2010-06-07 15:31:53 補充:

    http://blog.huayuworld.org/yyc/12444/2009/05/20/31...

    g. 當關係代名詞,代表其前或其後的主要子句

    He was a foreigner, as I knew from his accent.

    As was expected, he was bitterly defeated in the game.

    2010-06-07 15:32:05 補充:

    注意第二句, 正是版主本句的雷同句型, 在這個網頁歸類為關係代名詞, 相當於我們稱呼的準關代.

    = He, as was expected, was bitterly defeated in the game.

    = He was bitterly defeated in the game, as was expected,

    Source(s): 賀氏英文法
  • 10 years ago

    兩位的論點其實都有其依據, 關鍵在於準關代要怎麼明確的來定義. 如果把Michael Phelps換成Such a man(不需逗號)來看:

    Such a man as had been expected fulfilled his goal of winning eight gold medals inthe 2008 Olympics.

    這就毫無疑問的是準關代結構吧?

    2010-06-06 11:01:41 補充:

    但此句仍可改成:

    As had been expected, such a man fulfilled his goal of winning eight gold medals inthe 2008 Olympics.

    這樣是否As就變成不是準關代了嗎? 關鍵在準關代的確切定義.

  • 10 years ago

    哇!真想給大家都拍拍手!

  • 10 years ago

    以前沒在台灣學過這些正式的文法

    (像"準關代" 還有 "先行詞" 的定義等等)

    只知道用久了 哪些文法是正確的

    敝人有空會花些時間仔細看看兩位大師的論點

    受教了

    2010-06-06 22:39:02 補充:

    在這裡 as 不是準關代

    應該是代名詞 (pronoun)

    Michael Phelps, as had been expected, fulfilled his goal of winning eight gold medals in the 2008 Olympics.

    可以改寫成

    Michael Phelps fulfilled his goal of winning eight gold medals in the 2008 Olympics, as had been expected.

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  • Kevin
    Lv 7
    10 years ago

    我一向強調, 英文的學習應該以語意為主, 文法是用來確認我們想法, 而非主導我們的方向.

    句構不懂其實沒關係, 但是語意您了解嗎? 如果不, 那您可以猜出它想表達什麼嗎?

    句子是說:

    一如預期 , 菲爾普斯在2008奧運達成他囊括八面金牌的目標 .

    以上是比較清楚的中文語法. 隨性一些, 也可以說:

    菲爾普斯一如預期 在2008奧運達成他囊括八面金牌的目標.

    誰預期? 我們/大家/大眾..., 這應該沒問題.

    預期什麼?

    是菲爾普斯這個人, 還是"菲爾普斯囊括八面金牌"這件事? 應該是後者.

    我們可以說:

    We expect that you will pass the test.

    We expect your passing the test.

    We expect your success.

    但是不會只說:

    We expect you.

    (We are expecting you. 我們正在等你)(這是不同的用法, 與本句無關.)

    也不會說:

    You have been expected.

    但是可以說:

    We expect you to pass the test.

    [you to pass the test]表達與[that you will pass the test]幾乎相同的語意.

    OR:

    You have been expected to pass the test.

    賀氏英文法是一套好書, 但是要會活用.

    如果按無極大師的說法, as當主詞(當"人"), 就有以上所說的問題. 所以並不是"準關代"這樣的結構.

    版主應該知道以下這句的用法吧:

    You passed the test, which is very surprising.

    [which]並不是指[test], 而是[you passed the test]這件事.

    You passed the test, which has been expected.

    你通過了考試 - 我們早料到會如此.

    可以用[as]放在[which]的位置, 但是語意稍有變化:

    You passed the test, as has been expected.

    一如(我們)預期, 你通過了考試.

    除了語意的差異, 以[as]帶領的話, 可以放的位置比較自由(當然也不是亂放):

    As has been expected, you passed the test.

    You, as has been expected, passed the test.

    You passed, as has been expected, the test.

    主要取決於作者的習慣與意圖.

    [, which ...]就不能如此趴趴走.

    實際的例子:

    She stayed awake longer than he, as had been the case every night since their first.

    http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cac...

    Holcroft did not fret in the least that he could not go to the fields, nor did he, as had been his custom at first, find rainy-day work at the barn.

    http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cac...

    2010-05-30 11:30:58 補充:

    The first choice of the Synod was Dr. Edgell, the Chaplain-General of the forces, who by a long residence in Halifax had won the hearts of the whole people. He, as had been feared, after due consideration, declined the appointment.

    2010-05-30 11:32:49 補充:

    The first choice of the Synod was Dr. Edgell, the Chaplain-General of the forces, who by a long residence in Halifax had won the hearts of the whole people. He, as had been feared, after due consideration, declined the appointment.

    2010-05-30 11:32:57 補充:

    http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cac...

    2010-05-30 11:33:13 補充:

    As is the Norm, Parker’s defense sparkled.

    http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cac...

    2010-06-02 12:03:14 補充:

    "版主句子是插入式, 插入於主人翁之後, 準關代as子句就是修飾主詞Michael Phelps, 亦即as的先行詞是Michael Phelps."

    照無極大師的說法, [as=Michael Phelps]

    [Michael Phelps had been expected]就犯了我說的毛病.(語意不完整)

    從句意上來看, [as ...]本來就應該是個副詞功能的子句, 跟它的位置無關 我也說得很清楚.

    但願您能參透這點.

    2010-06-02 12:09:08 補充:

    "囊括"的使用確有誤差, 特此更正並感謝您提出.

    但是並不影響我說的內容.

    2010-06-02 20:27:02 補充:

    "準關代 = 連接詞 + 先行詞或代名詞" -> Nope!

    準關代 = 連接詞(as/than) + 先行詞+關係代名詞

    因為後兩者被省略, 統由連接詞概括承受, 因此稱該連接詞稱為"準關代".

    準關代的出現都有特定的結構:

    [such+n.]/[as+adj.+n.]/[same+n.]=>as

    [superlative+n.]=>than

    [negative+n.]=>but

    2010-06-02 20:27:50 補充:

    As many children as came here were my father's pupils.

    As many children as children who came here were my father's pupils.

    2010-06-02 20:27:57 補充:

    Such as praise you to your face are likely to speak ill of you behind your back.

    Such people/persons as those who praise you to your face are likely to speak ill of you behind your back.

    2010-06-02 20:28:22 補充:

    把本句還原, 就可以知道並非"準關代":

    Michael Phelps, as the person who had been expected, fulfilled his goal of winning eight gold medals inthe 2008 Olympics. (?????)

    不只沒有前述的特定的結構, 語意也不對.

    2010-06-02 20:28:33 補充:

    不然,

    Michael Phelps, as the fact which had been expected, fulfilled his goal of winning eight gold medals inthe 2008 Olympics. (?????)

    [the fact]所指為何也不明.

    2010-06-02 20:29:22 補充:

    Helen did not come to Taipie as she was expected. ←連接詞帶領的副詞子句

    =Helen did not come to Taipie as was expected.

    [as]的角色並未因省略[she was]而改.

    2010-06-06 11:43:46 補充:

    cavalier大師說出重點, [such]是關鍵的"特殊結構". 問題是原句並無這樣的字眼.

  • Latte
    Lv 5
    10 years ago

    A.我的看法,這是兩句的合併

    >Michael Phelps as (he )had been expected.

    Michael Phelps fulfilled his goal of winning eight gold medals in the

    2008 Olympics.

    >>因為兩句主詞都是Michael Phelps 所以省掉一個Michael Phelps;用,_____,把句子分隔開;就變成

    >>>Michael Phelps, as _had been expected_, fulfilled his goal of winning eight gold medals inthe 2008 Olympics.

    >>>>Michael Phelps如被期望的 實現了贏得巴金的目標在2008奧運上

    B.as的用法

    1.adv.--如同; 例如

    Such animals as foxes and squirrels have bushy tails.

    有些動物, 如狐和松鼠, 有蓬鬆的尾巴。

    2.conj.--a.像...一樣; 依照; 像

    You ought to do as Paul tells you. 你應按照保羅吩咐的做。

    The work is not so difficult as you imagine. 這工作不像你想像的那麼困難。

    b.當...時

    As she left the room she remembered that book.

    她離開房間時想起了那本書。

    c.隨著

    As the sun rose the fog dispersed. 太陽一出來, 霧隨之消失。

    3.prep.--作為, 以...的身分

    She works as an interpreter in that company. 她在該公司裡擔任翻譯員。

    4.pron.---(與such, the same, as等連用, 引導關係子句)與...相同的事物(或人)

    He has earned as much money as I have. 他賺的錢和我賺的一樣多。

    She felt just the same as he did. 她和他的感受相同。

    There is a general rise in prices such as occurred in the late 60's. 物價普遍上漲, 跟六十年代末一樣。

    Source(s): moi+yahoo字典
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