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DNA base sequence and genetic disorders?

Question from my biology class.

Sometimes differences in DNA base sequences cause genetic disorders while other times differences do not seem to have any harmful effects. Explain how could a person have a difference in his/her base sequence and NOT have any genetic disorder?

Is it that people can have different base sequences in their DNA as long as it makes the right amino acids? I think thats right but I'm not sure.

3 Answers

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  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    You're on the right track.

    Different species have different codon usages and prefer certain codons over others that encode the same amino acid (AA). (This is a neat site: http://www.kazusa.or.jp/codon/) In general, mutations that occur in the first of second nucleotide are bad and can lead to a non-functional protein. However, the "wobble effect" occurs when a codon specifying a particular AA has a mutated third base. tRNAs still recognize the codon as being the same AA, and all is well.

    If a human had a genetic mutation, they could still be making the right proteins.

    Hope this helps!

    Source(s): Microbiology graduate student
  • 1 decade ago

    Additionally, you're more likely to see the genetic disorders if there's mutations in the exons (the part of the DNA that gets transcribed) over mutations in the introns. Also depends on the type of mutation int he DNA base sequence you have, if it's just a point mutation (single base substitution), then theres a chance that wobble effect will keep it the same AA, however, there's also the chance that the new codon will encode an AA that acts similarly to the AA it previously encoded and not severely affect the overall structure of the protein.

  • 5 years ago

    a "gene" is a recipe for a protien, a protien is made up of amino acids, every amino acid realtes to a specific sequence of 3 bases, (eg ACU), so the DNA holds the infotmation by being an instruction manual.... "put this amino acid here, this one there, and whoalla... Protien" so you've got your 4 base sequences (A,U,C or G), and you arrange them in order on on side of the DNA strand, now every group of 3 base sequences ( every codon) is a code for a certain amino acid, and a molecule (tRNA) that carries that amino acid comes along and realises that it is needed there, so it stops, then the next 3 base sequences along mean another amino acid... so the tRNAmolecule that caries that acid stops there, until you have a whole lot of amino acids and making up a protien, which makes up the cells, which makes up the organism.

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