Yes, many of them do. Most cultural beliefs about things in the physical world tend to come from some basis of the aspects of that thing. That's a really vague statement, I know, but ancient beliefs about certain plants or certain types of foods that stayed throughout time usually stick because they seem to have some benefit from it and modern science is verifying quite a few of those aspects (eg. Cayenne is a hot food, heats up your system, increases circulation, etc).
Many times, it may be something that's obvious like spicy foods being "hot" (anyone who tastes it will know that), but there are many other aspects that apply as well. The traditions like this stick because people noticed that certain foods gave certain reactions so they kept using them for those reasons ("hot" foods during the winter) because they worked and that "tradition" was passed on.
Granted, there are some beliefs that may be entirely based on religion and tradition (eg. saying certain words before a meal or having to recite certain phrases at certain times), but those based on physical aspects of things tend to have something behind them (eg. eating a certain plant will give you energy, this plant will make you warm up, etc). I hope this helps!
Health/nutrition classes and personal research in my role as a Product Specialist for a vitamin company