楊漱白 asked in 教育與參考考試 · 10 years ago

98年研究所經濟學考題-2

6.( ) If there is no goverment intervention in a market where there is a

negative externality,

(A)not enough of the good will be produced

(B)the price of the good is not as high as it should be to send the right

incentives to consumers

(C)there will be zero deadweight loss

(D)marginal social benefit would exceed the marginal private benefit

7.( ) The number of tons of fish caught in the world 's ocean has been falling

over time because

(A)global treaties now prohibit the deep-sea fishing that used to be a

major source of commercial fish

(B)vast tracts in the Pacific andAtlantic Oceans are now off-limits for

fisherman

(C)the number of big fish in the ocean is fewer than it used to be

(D)taxs on fishing are now so high that many small vessels have been

put out of business

1 Answer

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  • 10 years ago
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    6.( b) If there is no goverment intervention in a market where there is a

    negative externality,

    首先negative externality出現時,政府可能必須跟廠商徵稅來達到經濟效率(economic efficiency)。例如,某廠商製造很多汙然,因為這些空氣/水汙染某廠商不但不用負責任的,還可以以低成本生產多一點。既然成本低,商品價格自然低,還可以賣更多!! 那汙染怎麼辦? 政府這時就會踏進來管制啦!!

    (A)not enough of the good will be produced 所以不是不夠,而是會生產更多若政府不管。

    (B)the price of the good is not as high as it should be to send the right

    incentives to consumers 生產成本低,商品價錢跟著低(沒那麼高了)來吸引顧客

    (C)there will be zero deadweight loss 一定會有社會淨損失(deadweight loss)因為沒有達到經濟效率。反之如果有達到經濟效率,社會淨損失就會是0。補充: 社會淨損失在壟斷市場、稅收、配額、關稅也會出現。

    (D)marginal social benefit would exceed the marginal private benefit 是不會超過的,因為在這個題目裡marginal private benefit是大於marginal social benefit。某廠商賺錢,汙染卻是社會、人民共同承擔的。D選項只有在有Positive externality的時候成立。

    7.( d) The number of tons of fish caught in the world 's ocean has been falling

    over time because

    (A)global treaties now prohibit the deep-sea fishing that used to be a

    major source of commercial fish

    (B)vast tracts in the Pacific andAtlantic Oceans are now off-limits for

    fisherman

    (C)the number of big fish in the ocean is fewer than it used to be

    (D)taxs on fishing are now so high that many small vessels have been

    put out of business

    如果這題不是經濟的題目我真的不知道要選哪個才好,哈哈。

    這題是在考有關private and public goods。捕魚同時有private 和 public good的特徵.

    什麼意思呢? 意思是大家都可以捕魚,所以是nonexcludable;但是魚捕完了就沒了,所以是rival。

    rival+excludable=pure private goods 例: 剪髮店剪髮

    rival+nonexcludable= common-pool resources 例: 海洋裡的魚

    nonrival+ excludable=toll goods 例: 電影院看電影

    nonrival+nonexcludable= pure private goods 例:國防

    ...第7題好像有點扯遠了,因為魚捕完就沒了,所以要向漁夫收稅來控制魚被捕的量。

    Source(s):
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