American history help?
*When Jefferson took Office*
1.what were the main parties in the election of 1800
2.and how did their views differ
- 1 decade agoFavorite Answer
"American history" redirects here. For the history of the continents, see History of the Americas.
See also: Outline of United States history
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The first residents of what is now the United States immigrated from Asia prior to 15,000 years ago by crossing Beringia into Alaska. Archaeological evidence of these peoples, the ancestors of the Native Americans is dated to 14,000 years ago.
Christopher Columbus was the first European to land in the territory of what is now the United States when he arrived in Puerto Rico in 1493. The subsequent arrival of settlers from Europe began the colonial history of the United States. The Thirteen English colonies that would become the original US states, were founded along the east coast beginning in 1607. Spain, France and Russia also founded small settlements in what would become US territory. The Thirteen Colonies grew very rapidly, reaching 50,000 by 1650, 250,000 by 1700, and 2.5 million by 1775. High birth rates and low death rates were augmented by steady flows of immigrants from Europe as well as slaves from the West Indies. Occasional small-scale wars involved the French and Indians to the north, and the Spanish and Indians to the south. Religion was a powerful influence on many immigrants, especially the Puritans in New England and the German sects in Pennsylvania, with boosts from the revivals of the First Great Awakening. The colonies by the 1750s had achieved a standard of living about as high as Britain, with far more self government than anywhere else. Most free men owned their own farms and could vote in elections for the colonial legislatures, while local courts dispensed justice. Royal soldiers were rarely seen.
The colonists did not have representation in the ruling British government and believed they were being denied their constitutional rights as Englishmen. For many years, the home government had permitted wide latitude to local colonial governments. Beginning in the 1760s London demanded the colonists pay taxes. The new foreign taxes on stamps and tea ignited a firestorm of opposition. The British responded with military force in Massachusetts, and shut down the system of local self government in what the colonists called the Intolerable Acts.
After fighting broke out in April 1775, each of the colonies ousted all royal officials and set up their own governments, which were coordinated out of Philadelphia by the Continental Congress. The American Revolution escalated into all-out war. Despite local King George loyalists, the new nation declared independence in July 1776 as the United States of America. After Americans captured the British invasion army in 1777, France became a military ally, and the war became a major international war with evenly balanced forces. With the capture of a second British invasion army at Yorktown in 1781, the British opened peace negotiations. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 proved highly favorable to the new nation.
The new national government proved too weak, so and a Constitutional Convention was called in 1787 to create an alternative. The resulting Constitution of the United States ratified in 1788 created a federal government, based on the ideology of republicanism, equal rights, and civic duty. The first ten amendments known as the Bill of Rights quickly followed, guaranteeing many individual rights from federal interference. The new national government under President George Washington built a strong economic system, designed by Alexander Hamilton, that settled the wartime debts, created a national bank and sought economic growth based on cities and trade, more than farming. Hamilton formed the Federalist Party to gain wide local support for the new policies, which were opposed by Thomas Jefferson. The Jay Treaty of 1795 opened a decade of trade with Britain, which was at war with revolutionary France. Jefferson, a friend of France who feared British influence would undermine republicanism, set up an opposition party, and the First Party System based on voters in every state, began operation in the mid 1790s. Jefferson tried to coerce the British into recognizing America's neutral rights, stopping seizing sailors on American ships, and stop aiding hostile Indians in the West. When that failed the U.S. declared the War of 1812 against Britain. The war was militarily indecisive but guaranteed American independence, as well as friendly relations with the Briti