In theory, yes. When you save an edit on Wikipedia, from a legal point of view you are publishing a document. If you could be prosecuted for publishing such a document, you could be prosecuted for making such an edit to Wikipedia. For example, knowingly publishing false information about someone could lead to libel charges; you're responsible if you post copyrighted material inappropriately, et cetera.
In practice, you likely won't get sued. First, someone with an interest in the bad edit(s) would have to notice; likely it would be reverted quickly and they wouldn't notice. Second, that person would have to figure out who you are. This may or may not be easy depending on your Internet Service Provider (ISP) and whether you edited as a registered user or not. Third, the process would involve plenty of legal fees, so it would probably have to be something particularly damaging.
So yes, it's possible, but no, it's unlikely.
General knowledge; please note I am *not* a lawyer and cannot give you legal advice.