Hideki Tōjō (Kyūjitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機; ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. After the end of the war, Tōjō was sentenced to death for war crimes by the International Military Tribunal of the Far East.
Tōjō was promoted to Chief of Staff of the Kwangtung Army. As Chief of Staff, Tōjō was responsible for various military operations to increase Japanese penetration into the Mongolia and Inner Mongolia border regions with Manchukuo. In July 1937, he personally led the units of the 1st Independent Mixed Brigade in Operation Chahar.
After the Marco Polo Bridge Incident marking the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War, Tōjō ordered his forces to move against Hopei and other targets in northern China.
Tōjō was recalled to Japan in May 1938 to serve as Vice-Minister of War under War Minister Seishiro Itagaki. From December of 1938 to 1940, Tōjō was Inspector-General of Army Aviation.
After Japan's unconditional surrender in 1945, U.S. General Douglas MacArthur issued orders for the arrest of the first forty alleged war criminals, including Tōjō.
He was tried by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East for war crimes and found guilty of the following crimes:
* count 1 (waging wars of aggression, and war or wars in violation of international law)
* count 27 (waging unprovoked war against the Republic of China)
* count 29 (waging aggressive war against the United States)
* count 31 (waging aggressive war against the British Commonwealth of Nations)
* count 32 (waging aggressive war against the Netherlands)
* count 33 (waging aggressive war against France)
* count 54 (ordering, authorizing, and permitting inhumane treatment of Prisoners of War (POWs) and others)
He was sentenced to death on November 12, 1948 and executed by hanging on December 23, 1948. In his final statements he apologized for the atrocities committed by the Japanese military and urged the American military to show compassion toward the Japanese people, who had suffered devastating air attacks and the two atomic bombs.[
Tōjō is often considered responsible for authorizing the murder of more than 8 million civilians in China, Korea, the Philippines, Indochina, and other Pacific island nations, as well as tens of thousands of Allied POWs. Tōjō is also implicated in government-sanctioned experiments on POWs and Chinese civilians (see Unit 731). Like his German counterparts, Tōjō often claimed to be carrying out orders; in his case those of the Emperor, who was granted immunity from war crimes prosecution.
Because of the sheer scale of suffering caused by the Japanese military during the 1930s and 1940s, it is often compared to the military of Nazi Germany during 1933–45. Much of the controversy regarding Japan's role in World War II revolves around the death rates of prisoners of war and civilians under Japanese occupation. The historian Chalmers Johnson has written that:
It may be pointless to try to establish which World War Two Axis aggressor, Germany or Japan, was the more brutal to the peoples it victimised. The Germans killed six million Jews and 20 million Russians [i.e. Soviet citizens]; the Japanese slaughtered as many as 30 million Filipinos, Malays, Vietnamese, Cambodians, Indonesians and Burmese, at least 23 million of them ethnic Chinese. Both nations looted the countries they conquered on a monumental scale, though Japan plundered more, over a longer period, than the Nazis. Both conquerors enslaved millions and exploited them as forced labourers — and, in the case of the Japanese, as [forced] prostitutes for front-line troops. If you were a Nazi prisoner of war from Britain, America, Australia, New Zealand or Canada (but not Russia) you faced a 4% chance of not surviving the war; [by comparison] the death rate for Allied POWs held by the Japanese was nearly 30%.
According to the findings of the Tokyo Tribunal, the death rate among POWs from Asian countries, held by Japan was 27.1%. The death rate of Chinese POWs was much larger because — under a directive ratified on August 5, 1937 by Emperor Hirohito — the constraints of international law on treatment of those prisoners was removed. Only 56 Chinese POWs were released after the surrender of Japan.
look these up;
* Alexandra Hospital massacre * Andaman Islands * Banka Island Massacre
* Batu Lintang POW/internment camp * Kaimingye germ weapon attack
* Bataan Death March * Comfort women * Hell ships * Japanese human experimentations
* Burma Railway * Changjiao Massacre * Changteh Chemical Weapon Attack
* Kalagon Massacre * Laha Massacre * Nanking Massacre * Parit Sulong Massacre
* Manila Massacre * Panjiayu Massacre