You're asking for a prediction. It's possible that your F-1 visa could be revoked.
In order to qualify for an F-1 visa, an applicant must show "present intent to leave the United States at conclusion of studies." If you attempt to become a permanent resident, that would imply you have no intention to leave the U.S. at the end of studies.
In 22 CFR 41.122(a) it says: Grounds for revocation by consular officers. A consular officer is authorized to revoke a nonimmigrant visa issued to an alien if:
(1) The officer finds that the alien was not, or has ceased to be, entitled to the nonimmigrant classification under INA 101(a)(15) specified in the visa or that the alien was at the time the visa was issued, or has since become, ineligible under INA 212(a) to receive a visa, or was issued a visa in contravention of INA 222(g).
As as matter of discretion, an officer could revoke the F-1 visa if he felt that you ceased to be entitled to that classification. If your adjustment was denied and you were given voluntary departure, then the final order granting voluntary departure with an alternate order of deportation would justify cancellation of the visa.
So, yes, it's possible, but it would be a judgment made at the time of the denial based upon the facts at the time. Ignore ibu guru.