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一葉蔬 asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

請問使用 have 否定的用法?

以下例句取自 chinapost.com.tw/international/americas/2010/01/25/242128/Oil-spill.htm

1.) 請問使用 have 否定的用法?

1.1 I have [no] idea.

1.2 I do [not] have any idea.

1.3 a crude oil spilled in a southeast Texas port had been contained to a two-mile (3-kilometer) area and was [not] believed to have hurt any local wildlife.

1.4 a crude oil ... was believed to have [not] hurt any local wildlife.

1.5 initial reports indicated [none] of the oil in the Texas spill had affected area marshes or hurt any local wildlife.

1.6 initial reports indicated any of the oil in the Texas spill had [not] affected area marshes or hurt any local wildlife.

為何此類否定的寫法是 1.1, 1.3, 1.5; 而不會像 1.2, 1.4, 1.6 等將否定置於動詞部份? 是習慣問題還是文法問題?

2. 在1.5例句中, 沼澤區域為何不是marsh areas?

3. they have 11,000 barrels — that they could not account for.

這裡的account for是說[無法說明, 可是很明顯已經外漏, 所以應該可以說明其去處], 若解釋成[無法負責], 也很奇怪, --- 這要怎麼解釋?

1 Answer

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  • 1 decade ago
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    兩種方式都是對的,就像中文,一個意思的表達也都不只一種方式,例如

    “我沒帶錢” 和” 我身上沒錢” 意思是一樣的。就看說話者要用什麼方式來表達他的話。

    如I have no idea 和 I don’t have idea 意義相同,使用何者來陳述都正確。

    was [not] believed to have hurt any local wildlife. 未被相信有傷害了任何當地的野生動物。

    was believed to have [not] hurt any local wildlife 被相信未傷害任何當地的野生動物。

    上述兩句的意思也是相同,都是正確的,端視作者要如何來表達一句話。

    15句及16句也是一樣,都正確,使用任一式不會有人說錯。是個人的表述方式不同,沒人規定話要如何講才行。

    marsh areas 是正確的,area marshes 應是 area which of marshes 省略 which of 而來,但我認為兩者稍有不同marsh areas 指好幾個個別的沼澤區,area marshes 應是一區裡有好幾處沼澤,是由數個沼澤共同構成之沼澤區。

    they have 11,000 barrels — that they could not account for.

    據我閱讀了原文,我認為是”他們無法解釋(說明)” 的意思。

    因該油船原裝有80,000 barrels ,而在發生碰撞意外後,他們由船體抽出69,000 barrels,少了11,000 barrels,但後句Several local officials said only 1,000 barrels, or about 42,000 gallons (160,000 liters), of oil had been spilled into the water.

    1,000 barrels以外的油到底那裡去了?他們無法解釋。

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